Baikov, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich
Born July 25 (Aug. 6), 1870, in Fatezh, Kursk Province; died Apr. 6, 1946, in Moscow. Soviet metallurgist and chemist, academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1932; corresponding member, 1927), Hero of Socialist Labor (1945). Graduated from the Department of Physics and Mathematics of the University of St. Petersburg (1893). Professor at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic Institute from 1903.
Baikov pursued studies of transformations in metals and the theory of metallurgical processes. Among Baikov’s notable achievements are the etching of iron with hydrogen chloride at high temperatures, which made possible the proof of the existence of austenite (1909); the determination of the polymorphism of nickel; the study of alloys of copper and antimony and the phenomenon of hardening in these alloys and the first analysis of the causes of the formation of needle-shaped structures in these alloys; the study of complex high-carbon phases in alloys of iron and carbon, which confirmed an original view of the nature of graphite and cementite; and the characteristics of high-quality steels. Baikov also contributed greatly to the organization of the Soviet fireproofing industry.
In addition, Baikov was an outstanding teacher and the founder of the largest school for metallurgists—in the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute. He was a deputy to the first and second convocations of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. He received the State Prize of the USSR in 1943, and was awarded three Orders of Lenin and two other orders, in addition to medals.