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(bäkä`sē), peninsula, c.400 sq mi (1,000 sq km), E Cameroon, on the Cameroon-Nigeria border, at the SE end of the Gulf of Guinea. The swampy peninsula and associated small islands are strategically located, controlling access to the Nigerian port of CalabarCalabar
, city (1991 est. pop. 154,000), SE Nigeria, a port on an estuary of the Gulf of Guinea. Rubber is processed, and palm oil, cacao, rubber, and timber are exported. Calabar, an important Niger delta trading state in the 19th cent., grew as a center of the palm oil trade.
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; the surrounding waters are rich in fish and submarine oil deposits. The traditional inhabitants are mainly Efik fishermen with historical ties to Nigeria.

In 1961 the S British CameroonsCameroons,
Fr. Cameroun, Ger. Kamerun, former German colony, W Africa, on the Gulf of Guinea and extending N to Lake Chad. Germany's penetration of the area began in 1884 and by 1902 its possession was recognized.
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 (a former German colony) became part of Cameroon, while the northern portion joined Nigeria. Control of the peninsula, which was in Nigerian hands, was disputed between the two countries, and military clashes over it occurred sporadically. The dispute was brought in 1994 by Cameroon to International Court of Justice, which awarded the peninsula to Cameroon in 2002. The judgment was largely based on the 1913 Anglo-German agreement that defined the borders of those nations colonies.

A 2006 agreement established a two-year timetable for the handover of the peninsula; the inhabitants could remain as Cameroonian citizens or be resettled in Nigeria. The handover process began in Aug., 2006, when Nigeria withdrew its troops from the region, and the northern portion was transferred to Cameroon. The transfer of the region was completed in Aug., 2008. Many residents moved from Bakassi to Nigeria, both before and after the transfer was completed, and there have been clashes between Cameroonian forces and residents opposed to the handover.

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Across Africa there are revolutionary groups namely El-shabab, Muslim Brotherhood, Boko Haram, Independent People of Biafra (IPOB), Niger Delta militants, Bakassi Freedom Fighters, to mention but a few.
These are Odua'a Peoples' Congress (OPC), which dominate the south western part of Nigeria and the Bakassi Boys, active in the eastern part of the country others include; Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB), Arewa People's Congress (APC), and a flurry of shadowy groups in the Niger Delta such as Niger Delta Peoples Volunteers Force (NDPVF), the Movement for the Emancipation of Niger Delta (MEND) among others.
In a partnership with Canadian companies Madison Cameroon Oil and Gas Limited and International SoftRock Oil and Gas Limited, Dana Petroleum, which owns a majority 55% stake operating the Bakassi West block in Cameroon, is expected to invest 871 m from 2012 to 2020.
Paul Welch, CEO, said, The Bakassi West concession is not a core asset to our business and we do not believe it would have been prudent to continue investing in it.
Hijacking Civil Society: The Inside Story of the Bakassi Boys Vigilante Group of South-Eastern Nigeria.
Examples include the creation of South Sudan, the transfer of Bakassi Peninsula from Nigeria to Cameroon, the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro into two states, East Timor's independence, and the transfer of the Panama Canal Zone to Panama.
Relations between Nigeria and Cameroon have been fraught for years because of territorial disputes, in particular over the oil-rich Bakassi peninsula, which eventually was awarded to Cameroon by an international court.
Nigeria and Cameroon have accumulated distrust over numerous small border disagreements and, most significantly, the disputed Bakassi peninsula.
The case of the defunct dreadful Bakassi Boys in Anambra State, south east Nigeria is an example.
One, the Bakassi Freedom Fighters (BFF), is opposed to Nigeria's return of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon.
2007) 'Hijacking civil society: the inside story of the Bakassi Boys vigilante group of south-eastern Nigeria', Journal of Modern African Studies 45 (1): 89-115.