Angkor

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Angkor

(ăng`kôr), site of several capitals of the Khmer EmpireKhmer Empire
, ancient kingdom of SE Asia. In the 6th cent. the Cambodians, or Khmers, established an empire roughly corresponding to modern Cambodia and Laos. Divided during the 8th cent., it was reunited under the rule of Jayavarman II in the early 9th cent.
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, north of Tônlé Sap, NW Cambodia, for about five and a half centuries (9th to 15th), the heart of the empire. Extending over an area of 120 sq mi (323 sq km), the ruins contain some of the most imposing monuments in the world, including about a thousand temples, mainly Hindu and some Buddhist; ancient Greater Angkor, however, had an extent perhaps nearly 10 times that size (according to satellite photographs published in 2007), and was home to perhaps 750,000 people. The earliest temples were constructed of brick, the later of stone, and many are covered with elaborate sculptures. The Angkor site also contains palaces and other buildings associated with the Khmer state. The first capital of the empire was founded by Yasovarman I (r. 889–900) and was centered around the pyramidal temple of Phnom Bak Kheng.

Angkor Wat

To the southeast of the original capital a new temple complex, Angkor Wat [Angkor temple], was created under Suryavarman II (r. 1113–50). Planned as a sepulcher and a monument to the divinity of the monarch and measuring about 1 sq mi (2.6 sq km), it is probably the largest religious structure in the world. Surrounded by a vast moat, the carved gray sandstone temple is approached by means of an extensive causeway bordered on either side by balustrades in the form of giant Nagas (divine serpents). This avenue leads to a magnificent entrance gate. The temple proper is reached through three series of galleries separated by paved courts. The middle series has four corner towers; above it, the highest series also has four corner towers and is joined to the central sanctuary by colonnades. Angkor Wat's rising series of towers and courtyards culminate in a 213-ft (65-m) lotus blossom-shaped central tower. The whole mass has been interpreted as representing the Hindu cosmos.

The architecture of Angkor Wat, derived from the stupa form, is enormously impressive, but the most remarkable feature of the temple compound is its sculptural ornament, covering thousands of feet of wall space. The decoration is in the form of low relief of impeccable craftsmanship, illustrating scenes from the legends of Vishnu and Krishna, with some historical events from the life of the king. More delicate in proportions than their Indian prototypes, many of the figures bear a resemblance to modern Cambodian dancers in their elegance of gesture and stateliness of pose. In 1177 Angkor was sacked by the Chams, and Angkor Wat fell into ruin.

Angkor Thom

Jayavarman VII (r. 1181–c.1218) established a new capital, Angkor Thom [the great Angkor], north of Phnom Bak Kheng. The buildings of an already existing city were used as residential palaces and governmental buildings; an excellent system of moats and canals was constructed. At the four entrances of the capital, there are gateways; they open onto four avenues that meet at the Bayon, the temple in the center of the city. Before each gateway is a bridge decorated with a balustrade in the shape of a giant Naga, supported on each side by 27 carved figures. Above the gates are carved imposing stone faces, generally thought to symbolize the Bodhisattva Lokesvara.

Jayavarman VII erected the Bayon as a Buddhist sanctuary, but it underwent alterations during a later Hindu period. The central tower bears a giant image of Buddha, which has been interpreted as the incarnation of Jayavarman VII. Surrounding the main structure is a forest of more than 50 smaller towers studded with multiple heads of the king as a Buddhist god. The buildings are covered with elaborate decoration, more spontaneously and realistically rendered than that at Angkor Wat and again illustrating historical episodes from the king's life.

Abandonment and Restoration

Angkor was raided in the 14th and 15th cent. by the Thai, and was abandoned for Phnom PenhPhnom Penh
or Phnum Penh
, city (1994 est. pop. 527,000), capital of Cambodia, SW Cambodia, at the confluence of the Mekong and Tônlé Sap rivers. Phnom Penh was founded in the 14th cent. and was made the Khmer capital after the abandonment (1434) of Angkor.
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 in 1434. Overgrown by the jungle, the ruins were discovered by the French in 1861. Many of the monuments were subsequently restored to their former glory; restoration has been ongoing. The Indian government embarked on a restoration program in 1986, and in 1992 the complex was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Nonethless, many of the structures at Angkor remain in jungle-choked ruins, and some are inaccessible due to unexploded land mines left over from the fighting of the late 20th cent.

Bibliography

See M. Giteau, Khmer Sculpture and the Angkor Civilization (1966); B. Groslier and J. Arthaud, The Arts and Civilization of Angkor (rev. ed. 1966); J. Myrdal and G. Kessle, Angkor: An Essay on Art and Imperialism (1971); J. Audric, Angkor and the Khmer Empire (1972); E. F. Gardner, ed., Angkor (1986); E. Mannikka, Angkor Wat: Time, Space and Kingship (1996); H. I. Jessup and T. Zephir, ed., Sculpture of Ankor and Ancient Cambodia (1997); D. Rooney, Angkor: An Introduction to the Temples (1998); C. Jacques, Angkor: Cities and Temples (1998) and Angkor (1999).

Angkor

 

an imposing complex of temples, palaces, reservoirs, and drains situated north of Tonle Sap Lake near the city of Siemreap (Cambodia); built in the ninth to 13th centuries, when the feudal Khmer government was at the height of its power. Angkor contains the ruins of the capital cities Yasodharapura (built at the end of the ninth century) and Angkor Thorn (completed in the 12th and 13th centuries), stone terrace-socles of wooden palaces, Brahman and Buddhist “hill temples” in the form of steplike pyramids, and massive ensembles of temples.

The largest of these, Angkor Wat (1,300 m by 1,500 m with a height of 66 m), built circa 1113 to 1150, is distinguished by the geometrical rigor of its design and the majestic harmony of its composition: the “hill temple” with five graceful towers and three terraces forming a steplike pedestal is surrounded by galleries with colonnades, pavilions of gates, and angular towers.

Angkor Thorn, which is of square design, occupies an area of more than 9 sq km; four axial streets lead from the hill gates to the center, the Bayon temple; the 54 towers of Bayon and five towers above the gates (gopura) are embellished with enormous (up to 2.4 m) sculptured faces. Angkor has innumerable reliefs—above the doors and on the pilasters and friezes, delicate stonework; on the walls of the temples, exquisite figures of angels (apsar); in the galleries of Angkor Wat and Bayon, scenes of battle and everyday life remarkable for their wealth of figurative and rhythmic detail; and on the palace terraces, vivid depictions of the national life and of animals.

Figure 1. Angkor

REFERENCES

Marshal, H. Angkor. [Moscow, 1963.] (Translated from French.) Groslier, B. P. Angkor. [Paris, 1956.]

Angkor

a large area of ruins in NW Cambodia, containing Angkor Thom (t%:m), the capital of the former Khmer Empire, and Angkor Wat (wAt), a three-storey temple, which were overgrown with dense jungle from the 14th to 19th centuries
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The historical date for the inauguration of the Bakong temple by Indravarman is AD 881, yet the inner moat of the temple, which defines its inner enclosure, was constructed some time between the late seventh and late eighth century AD, more than a century before the temple was complete, and most likely decades before Jayavarman II reputedly initiated the cult of devaraja and assumed the title cakravartin in AD 802.
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