Bal Gangadhar Tilak


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Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Birthday
BirthplaceChikhali, Ratnagiri district, British India (present-day Maharashtra, India)
Died
NationalityIndian

Tilak, Bal Gangadhar

 

Born July 23, 1856, in Ratnagiri, in the state of Maharashtra; died Aug. 1, 1920, in Bombay. Scholar and a leader of the democratic wing of India’s national liberation movement.

Tilak studied law before becoming a social and political activist in the 1870’s. Beginning in 1881 he published two newspapers, Mahratta (in English) and Kesari (in Marathi), that served as the voice of the national movement’s democratic wing during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. A bitter critic of British colonialism and its oppressive rule in India, Tilak, as a member of the swadeshi movement, advocated India’s independent economic development. He was among the first nationalists to suggest the need to enlist the broad popular masses in the struggle for freedom. He invoked India’s religious traditions in his effort to bring about unity in the national movement.

During the 1890’s and the early part of the 20th century, Tilak was active in the Indian National Congress (INC) and from 1905 to 1908, during a period of revolutionary upsurge, became a national leader of the extremists (that is, revolutionary democrats) in the INC. He publicized the revolutionary experiences of the Russians, the Irish, and others and proposed that the Indians in their struggle adopt the general political strike, which was being used in Russia, as a weapon. While training cadres of Indian revolutionaries, he called for the overthrow of colonial rule and the establishment of a republican government composed of representatives of the people. Tilak was imprisoned several times for his anti-imperialist activities; in 1908 he was sentenced to six years at hard labor. The sentence provoked a protest by workers in Bombay, who staged a general political strike (seeBOMBAY STRIKE OF 1908).

In 1914, Tilak helped organize the struggle for home rule. Later, influenced by the October Revolution of 1917, he began focusing attention on the necessity for the Indian proletariat to assume political power. In his newspapers he welcomed the October Revolution and supported the activities of the Bolsheviks under V. I. Lenin’s leadership.

Tilak wrote several scholarly works on the Vedas and on India’s early civilization.

WORKS

Bal Gangadhar Tilak: His Writings and Speeches, 3rd ed. Madras, 1922.

REFERENCES

Natsiona’ no-osvoboditel’noe dvizhenie v Indii i deiatel’nost’ B. G. Tilaka. Moscow, 1958.
Raikov, A. V. Probuzhdenie Indii. Moscow, 1968.
Gopal, R. Lokamanya Tilak: A Biography. London [1965].
Karmarkar, D. P. Bal Gangadhar Tilak: A Study. Bombay [1956].
Parvate, T. V. Bal Gangadhar Tilak. Ahmadabad [1958].
Tahmankar, D. V. Lokamanya Tilak: Father of Indian Unrest and Maker of Modern India. London, 1956.
Wolpert, S. A. Tilak and Gokhale: Revolution and Reform in the Making of Modern India. Berkeley, Calif., 1962.

A. I. CHICHEROV

References in periodicals archive ?
Summary: New Delhi [India], Aug 1 (ANI): Congress leader Rahul Gandhi on Thursday paid tribute to Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak on his 99th death anniversary.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy used the Upanishads to justify the reforms that he initiated; Swami Vivekananda gave preference to the Vedas and Bal Gangadhar Tilak, the social and political activist, emphasized the Bhagwat Gita.
Tenders are invited for Work of laying of sewer line in public Colony under Bal Gangadhar Tilak Ward
In the 126th year now, Ganeshotsav was launched on a modest scale by freedom fighter Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak in 1893, to rally the masses during the Independence movement.
From Sardar Patel to Bal Gangadhar Tilak to Madan Mohan Malviya, there had always been soft saffron elements within the Congress.
Remembering freedom fighter Bal Gangadhar Tilak -- who was born on July 23, 1856 and died on August 1, 1920 -- Modi said:"Lokmanya Tilak evoked self-confidence amongst our countrymen and gave the slogan 'Swaraj is our birth right and I shall have it'.
He would certainly be anathema to the BJP and its saffron cohorts even if he did sing bhajans for Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi or possibly because he did so!
The Jinnah which RSS hates so much fought the case of Bal Gangadhar Tilak as well as organized lawyers for Bhagat Singh in Lahore.
Notable reformists like M G Ranade, Vishnu Shastri Pandit, Gopal Hari Deshmukh, Bal Krishna Gokhale and many others of their ilk fought throughout their lives for the abolition of the caste system, the end to child marriages, the introduction of widow remarriages, et al amid bitter opposition from other upper castes like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, N C Kelkar and others who were equally opposed to the social reforms and advocted political independence from the British ahead of reforms in Hindu society.
" The biggest victims of sedition law under the British rule were Jawaharlal Nehru, Mahatma Gandhi, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Annie Besant," Tharoor had said.
The Home Minister said that non-Hindi speaking stalwarts of India's freedom movement like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Subhash Chandra Bose and C Rajagopalachari had advocated the promotion and expansion of Hindi.
And then in 1885 when Bal Gangadhar Tilak introduced Shivaji festival probably the death-bell for a united India was rung.