an archaeological Neolithic culture of the end of the fourth to the third millennium B.c., located in the lower reaches of the Oka River and along the middle Volga. It was named after the site of a dwelling near the city of Balakhna in Gorky Oblast, RSFSR, and has been known since the end of the 19th century. The hunting and fishing tribes of the Balakhna culture lived along the banks of rivers. At the settlements, which consisted of from two to four dwellings, rectangular or round semidugouts with remnants of hearths, plank beds along the walls, cellars, and pits for storing objects were excavated. Among the artifacts found were flint dart tips and arrowheads (leaf-shaped and rhombic) and scrapers, as well as polished implements of limestone and shale such as asymmetrical axes, adzes, and chisels. Ceramic objects found included large thick-walled vessels with pointed and rounded bases, decorated with pits and other ornamentation.
REFERENCESBader, O. N., and M. V. Voevodskii. “Stoianki Balakhninskoi niziny.” Izv. Gosudarstvennoi akademii istorii material’noi kul’tury,1934, issue 106.
Tsvetkova, I. K. “Stoianki balakhninskoi kul’tury v oblasti nizhnego techeniia Oki.” In the collection Materialy i issledovaniia po ar-kheologii SSSR, no. 110. Moscow-Leningrad, 1963.