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A family of dicotyledonous terrestrial plants in the order Santalales characterized by dry nutlike fruit, one to five ovules, unisexual flowers, attachment to the stem of the host, and the lack of chlorophyll.



a family of herbaceous dicotyledonous plants. They are parasites, more or less lacking chlorophyll and settling on the roots of trees. The underground part of this plant is a tuber-like, branching rhizome which sits on the roots of the host plant. The flower clusters which form on the rhizome are frequently brightly colored, and they extend above the surface of the soil at the ends of short fleshy stems covered with scalelike leaves. The flowers are small and unisexual, with a reduced calyx. The pistillate flowers are without a perianth, and the staminal flowers usually have a corolla. The fruit is nutlike or drupaceous. There are 18 genera (110 species) of mono- or dioecious plants, mainly in the rain forests of the tropics, and less often in the subtropics. The rhizomes of the genera Balano-phora (12 species in the tropics of Asia and Australia) and Langsdorffia (one species in tropical America) are rich in a waxlike resin, balanophorin; they are used in their native regions as candles. In the rhizome of Lophophytum mirabile (South America) there is a great deal of starch, lophophyton, and other substances which are used in medicine.


Takhtadzhian, A. L. Sistema i filogeniia tsvetkovykh rastenii. Moscow-Leningrad, 1966.
Terekhin, E. S., and M. S. lakovlev. “Embriologiia Balano phoraceae (K voprosu o gomologiiakh ‘tsvetka’ Balanophora). “Botanicheskii zhurnal, 1967, vol. 52, no. 6.


References in periodicals archive ?
Weevils of the subtribe Oxycorynina (Belidae: Oxycoryninae) occur in Central and South America, and the species of its four genera are associated with root parasitic dicots belonging to the families Hydnoraceae and Balanophoraceae (Marvaldi & Ferrer, in press).
The plant family Balanophoraceae comprises 17 genera containing about 42 species of root holoparasites, distributed primarily throughout the tropical areas of the world (Nickrent, 2002).
Anos mas tarde, Eichler (1872) propuso para la familia Balanophoraceae el genero Bdallophytum con dos especies (B.
The chapter is replete with factual errors such as incorrect estimates of numbers of species and genera for Balanophoraceae, Loranthaceae, and Olacaceae.
Most of the text is devoted to the root parasitic Scrophulariaceae (Striga and Orobanche) and Cuscuta; however, some attention is paid to pathogens in Santalaceae, Loranthaceae, Viscaceae, and even Balanophoraceae.
1/3 9 Balanophoraceae, Santalales Balanophora L 1/1 19 Balsaminaceae, Asterids Impatiens L.
been suggested between Balanophoraceae, Gunnera and Haloragaceae on the
The very simple flowers have led to superficial comparisons with groups such as Haloragaceae and Balanophoraceae, which may represent convergence through reduction (cr.
On the structure and affinities of Balanophoraceae.