Balkan Wars


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Balkan Wars,

1912–13, two short wars, fought for the possession of the European territories of the Ottoman Empire. The outbreak of the Italo-Turkish War for the possession of Tripoli (1911) encouraged the Balkan states to increase their territory at Turkish expense. Serbia and Bulgaria accordingly concluded (1912), with the aid of Russian secret diplomacy, a treaty of alliance. In a secret annex, the treaty provided for joint military action and the division of prospective conquests. The outbreak of the war (Oct., 1912), in which Greece and Montenegro joined the original allies, was followed by the speedy expulsion of the Turks from all of European Turkey, except the Constantinople area. After the conclusion of hostilities Serbia showed intentions of annexing a large part of Albania, in order to gain an outlet on the Adriatic, but this step toward a "Greater Serbia" was opposed by Austria-Hungary and Italy and by the Albanians, who had proclaimed their independence. Conferences of the ambassadors of the Great Powers at London created (1913) an independent Albania of fair size, thus cutting Serbia off from the sea. Dissatisfied with these terms, Serbia demanded of Bulgaria a greater share of Macedonia. Bulgaria thereupon attacked (June, 1913) Serbia, only to be attacked by Romania, Greece, and Turkey. As a result of this Second Balkan War, Bulgaria lost territory to all her enemies by the Treaty of Bucharest (Aug., 1913). The Balkan Wars prepared the way for World War I by satisfying some of the aspirations of Serbia and thereby giving a great impetus to the Serbian desire to annex parts of Austria-Hungary; by alarming Austria and stiffening Austrian resolution to crush Serbia; and by giving causes of dissatisfaction to Bulgaria and Turkey.

Bibliography

See G. Young, Nationalism and War in the Near East (1915, repr. 1970); E. C. Helmreich, The Diplomacy of the Balkan Wars, 1912–1913 (1938, repr. 1969).

References in periodicals archive ?
Thus, he is successful in showing that the Balkan Wars were a major watershed that shook the Empire's long held convictions and pushed the Empire into new directions.
To weigh it down even more, the novel hopscotches from present-day Edinburgh to the Balkan Wars as it juggles multiple story lines.
The Kingdom of Serbia expanded to include the Vardar part of Macedonia (the territory of present-day Republic of Macedonia), while the Pirin part of Macedonia was conceded to the Kingdom of Bulgaria, the defeated party in the Second Balkan War.
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Part 1 dates from the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913 through 1921.
Zagreb celebrates it with a national holiday, while Belgrade regards it as one of the worst crimes against Serbs committed during the Balkan wars.
documents the relationship between NATO and the UN with respect to conflicts like the Balkan wars and crises in the Middle East and South Asia from 1949 to the present, and how the relationship has changed over two generations.
Compare that with the containment of the 1990's Balkan Wars with the help of the EU, which the Balkan States now want to join.
He came to Bosnia during the Balkan wars of the early 1990s.
Former General Momcilo Perisic told Yugoslav war crimes tribunal judges he regrets the horrors of the Balkan wars.
Mr Akcam also argues that these massacres were a direct result of the defeats suffered in the Balkan Wars of 1912-13.
During the Balkan Wars it was occupied by Serbian forces and most of its systems and equipment were either destroyed or stolen.