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(self-designation Taulu, Mallqarlï), a people inhabiting mainly the southern and southwestern parts of the Kabarda-Balkar ASSR. A small number of Balkars live in the Kirghiz and Kazakh SSR’s. The population is 42,000 (1959). They speak Karachai-Balkar. Religious Balkars are Sunnite Muslims.

The ethnogenesis of the Balkars has not yet been finally clarified. They are thought to have been formed from the merging of indigenous tribes of the northern Caucasus with alien Iranian-speaking and Turkic-speaking tribes (Alani, Bulgars, Khazars, and so on; especially the Kipchaks). After the Mongol invasion (13th century) the ancestors of the Balkars were driven back into the mountain gorges of the central Caucasus, where they later formed five large “societies” (Balkar, Khulam, Bezengi, Chegem, and Urusbiev). In the second half of the 19th century some of the Balkars again settled in the lowlands. Before the October Revolution the Balkars were primarily engaged in cattle breeding and herding, and secondarily in farming. In the years of Soviet power the Balkars, having received national autonomy, developed a highly mechanized collective farming economy (agriculture and animal husbandry) in the course of socialist construction; a considerable portion of them are employed in industry. Much cultural development has been achieved; a people who did not have their own writing system prior to the October Revolution have created a national intelligentsia. In late 1943 and early 1944, as a result of a violation of socialist law, the Balkars were resettled in different areas of Middle Asia and Kazakhstan. On Jan. 9, 1957, an ukase was issued by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR restoring national autonomy to the Balkar people; the Kabarda-Balkar ASSR was reestablished. The authorized perversions of Leninist principles on national policy were corrected. Almost all of the Balkars returned to their native provinces, where conditions were recreated for their overall development.


Narody Kαv kaza, vol. 1. Moscow, 1960.
Ocherki istorii balkarskogo naroda. Nal’chik, 1961.
Alekseeva, E. P. Karachaevtsy ibalkartsy—drevnii narod Kavkaza. Cherkessk, 1963.
Zasedaniia Verkhovnogo Soveta SSSR chetvertogo sozyva, shestaia sessiia (5–12 fevralia, 1957). Stenograficheskii otchet.[Moscow, 1957.] Pages 576–77, 743–44.


References in periodicals archive ?
During the Great Patriotic War, te Germans, Greeks, Chechens, Ingush, Karachai, Balkars, Crimean Tatars and other peoples were deported in Kazakhstan.
The Balkars of Southern Russia and Their Deportation (1944-57).
12) Ethnic Russians have been steadily leaving the region in a process that began when the Balkars and the Karachai returned from exile in Central Asia in the late 1950s.
It is worth bearing in mind that there is a surviving letter from Lemkin to August Heckscher II from 1951, in which Lemkin used the term genocide to refer to the mass deportations conducted by the Soviet authorities of the Volga Germans in 1941, and of the Crimean Tatars, Chechens, the Ingush, Karachays, and Balkars in 1944 to 1945.
the Karachai and Balkars are ethnically close, as are the Karbardins and Cherkess.
Other of the USSRAEs Muslims followed into the Soviet death camps: Kalmyks, Tatars, Karachai, Balkars.
This fortress-like majestic maze of mountains is populated, alongside the Russians and Cossacks, by an array of small nations, such as the Abkhaz, Circassians, Balkars, Ossetians, the Ingush, Chechens, Kalmyks, and the welter of tribes and clans of Eastern Caucasus known collectively as Daghestan [literally--the Country of Mountains].
Turks cleansed regions of Armenians, Greeks and Assyrians; Eastern European states cleansed their German populations (removing more than 10 million people in one sweep), Stalin resettled entire nationalities (Chechens, Kalmyks, Ingush, Karachai, Balkars and Crimean Tatars).
Thus, between 1937 and 1949, thirteen small nationalities -- Koreans, Finns, Germans, Kalmyks, Karachays, Chechens, Ingush, Balkars, Crimean Tatars, Greeks, Meskhetian Turks, Kurds, and Khemshils -- those either with ethnic ties to foreign states or with a history of armed resistance to the tsarist Russian rule, deported into the interior of the Soviet Union, particularly to the sparsely populated areas of Kazakhstan, Soviet Central Asia and Siberia.
Over the last ten years, minorities such as the Dagestanis, Adygei and Balkars have rebuilt their national cultures, languages and Moslem religion, which the tsars and the Soviets tried hard to wipe out.
While in Chechnia in February 1944 to oversee the deportation of Chechens and Ingush, Beria wrote to Stalin suggesting the inclusion of the Balkars in the scheme as well.
Thus, Russia now confronts not only a self-declared independent and sovereign Chechnya (totally surrounded by Russian territory), but, also within Russian territory, the inquietudes of Northern Ossetia, and the Ingush, Cossacks, Karachi, Kalmyks, Balkars, Meskhetian Turks and Abkhazians, to name only a few.