In some scenarios, they expect their ballistic-missile forces to generate concrete, operational-level military effects as well, particularly in antiaccess and area-denial contexts.
Iran and North Korea are not alone in leveraging this aspect of potential ballistic-missile employment.
To counter the most pressing part of this spectrum of ballistic-missile threats-states already possessing WMD-armed ballistic missiles--the United States has fielded an initial national-level BMDS, integrating land, sea, air, and space elements.
ballistic-missile defenses has grown in importance in recent years, even as national-level BMDS has expanded to encompass other potential threats.
This pitted for the first time an in-service SM-3 Block IA missile against an intermediate-range (1,800-3,400 miles) modified Trident I/C-4 ballistic-missile target, an LV-2.
The primary goal was to track and engage a separating ballistic-missile target with the Aegis BMD 4.0.1 Weapon System and the SM-3 Block IB missile, the block-upgrade successor of the SM-3 Block IA.
interest in building ballistic-missile defenses, Japan decided in 2003 to upgrade its Kongo class with an Aegis BMD capability.
Moreover, in 2011 South Korea declared that it was establishing a defensive system to combat air-breathing (that is, generally, cruise missile, either ramjet or turbojet powered) and ballistic-missile threats from North Korea.
Eighteen months later, during the JMSDF's first flight-test mission, Kongo became the first ship of an allied navy to engage successfully a ballistic-missile target.
The Netherlands navy's Tromp, a frigate fitted with a modified SMART-L surveillance radar and the Advanced Phased Array Radar (APAR), demonstrated this potential when it tracked a ballistic-missile target during a December 2006 Aegis BMD flight test.
ballistic-missile defense policy in September 2009.
Momentum had been growing in Europe to build an alliance-wide missile-defense system compatible with Aegis BMD; Anders Fogh Rasmussen, NATO's secretary general, declared, "Missile defense presents the greatest potential for enhancing our cooperation." (33) The issue of collective ballistic-missile defense was a major theme during the Lisbon summit, which approved a plan for Aegis-enabled European BMD as a core element in NATO's new strategic concept: "NATO will actively seek cooperation on missile defense with Russia and other Euro-Atlantic partners." (34)