Balls Bluff

Balls Bluff,

hill on the south bank of the Potomac River, near Leesburg, Va. In the Civil War, Union troops who had crossed the river were severely repulsed there on Oct. 21, 1861. Dissatisfaction with that defeat and with the general inactivity of the Union armies led to the organization of a joint congressional committee on the conduct of the war.
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He had already paid a full measure of duty for the Union when he lost his left leg in the Battle of Balls Bluff, Va.
Principal battles: First Bull Run (Manassas, Virginia), Balls Bluff (near Leesburg, Virginia) (1861); Second Bull Run, South Mountain (Maryland), Antietam (1862).
Calhoun (1848), he graduated and was commissioned 2d lieutenant in 1st Dragoons (1852); after service at Fort Leavenworth, was promoted captain of 2d Cavalry (1856); resigned his commission and entered Confederate service as a major of cavalry (February 27, 1861); promoted colonel after the bombardment of Fort Sumter (April), he led a demibrigade with great distinction at First Bull Run (July 21); fought at Balls Bluff, and was promoted brigadier general on the field immediately after the battle (October 21); fought at Second Bull Run (August 28-30, 1862), South Mountain (September 14), and Antietam (September 17); sent west to Vicksburg, where he was court-martialed for intoxication (1863); transferred to South Carolina, he was temporarily removed from command by Gen.