Baltimore


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See also: National Parks and Monuments (table)National Parks and Monuments

National Parks
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Description
Acadia NP SE Maine 1919 48,419 (19,603) Mountain and coast scenery.
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Baltimore,

city (1990 pop. 736,014), N central Md., surrounded by but politically independent of Baltimore co., on the Patapsco River estuary, an arm of Chesapeake Bay; inc. 1745. The largest city in the state, it is a commercial and industrial center, a major railhead, and a seaport with extensive anchorages and dock and storage facilities. Coal, grain, and iron, steel, and copper products are exported. Among Baltimore's leading industries are shipbuilding, sugar and food processing, oil refining, biotechnology, and the manufacture of chemicals, steel, copper, clothing, and aerospace equipment.

Institutions and Attractions

A cultural and educational center, Baltimore is the seat of The Johns Hopkins Univ. with its famous medical center, the Univ. of Baltimore, Morgan State Univ., Loyola College in Maryland, the College of Notre Dame of Maryland, Coppin State Univ., and the Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, with schools of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, nursing, law, and social work. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) has had its headquarters in the city since 1986. Also there are the Peabody Conservatory of Music, the Maryland Institute College of Art, the Maryland Academy of Sciences, the Walters Art Gallery, and the Baltimore Museum of Art. The Enoch Pratt Free Library and the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra are well known. Since the 1970s filmmakers including John Waters and Barry Levinson have made Baltimore scenes widely familiar, as has novelist Anne TylerTyler, Anne,
1941–, American novelist, b. Minneapolis. Her witty and perceptive fiction, which is often set in the American South and frequently in and around Baltimore, portrays vivid contemporary characters involved in ordinary human life; she is particularly adept at
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.

The city's historical sites include Flag House; the first Roman Catholic cathedral in the United States (1806–21; designed by B. H. Latrobe); the Edgar Allan Poe House (c.1830); Westminster Churchyard, where Poe is buried; Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine (see National Parks and MonumentsNational Parks and Monuments

National Parks
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Description
Acadia NP SE Maine 1919 48,419 (19,603) Mountain and coast scenery.
..... Click the link for more information.
, table); the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Museum; and numerous colonial homes. The U.S.S. Constellation, the first U.S. navy ship (1797) and a national historic shrine, as well as other historic ships, are docked at Baltimore's Harborplace.

Other landmarks are the historic square Mt. Vernon Place, which contains the Washington Monument (1815–42; designed by Robert Mills); Druid Hill Park, with a zoo and a natural history museum; and Pimlico Race Course, site of the Preakness, held annually since 1873. Many of the city's famous streets of redbrick row houses with scrubbed white steps still exist, although recent populaton loss has led to much demolition. H. L. MenckenMencken, H. L.
(Henry Louis Mencken) , 1880–1956, American editor, author, and critic, b. Baltimore, studied at the Baltimore Polytechnic. Probably America's most influential journalist, he began his career on the Baltimore Morning Herald
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, Babe RuthRuth, Babe
(George Herman Ruth), 1895–1948, American baseball player, considered by many the greatest of all baseball players, b. Baltimore. Early Life

When he was seven years old his parents placed him in St.
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, and Billie HolidayHoliday, Billie,
1915–59, American singer, b. Baltimore. Her original name was Eleanora Fagan. She began singing professionally in 1930, and after performing with numerous bands—especially those of Benny Goodman, Teddy Wilson, Count Basie, and Artie Shaw—she
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 were born in Baltimore. Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport is nearby.

History

The site was settled in the early 17th cent. and Baltimore founded in 1729. The excellent harbor soon made it a center for the shipping of tobacco and grain. Shipbuilding, an early industry, flourished during the Revolution and the War of 1812 with the fitting out of many privateers, and in the early 1800s the famous Baltimore clippers were built. The nation's wars have played a large role in the city's history. When the British occupied (1777) Philadelphia, Baltimore became the meeting place of the Continental Congress. In the War of 1812 the gallant defense of Fort McHenryFort McHenry,
former U.S. military post in Baltimore harbor; built 1794–1805. In the War of 1812 it was bombarded (Sept. 13–14, 1814) by a British fleet under Sir Alexander Cochrane, but the fort, commanded by Maj. George Armistead, resisted the attack.
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 inspired Francis Scott KeyKey, Francis Scott
, 1779–1843, American poet, author of the Star-spangled Banner, b. present Carroll co., Md. A lawyer, he was U.S. attorney for the District of Columbia (1833–41).
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 to write "The Star-spangled Banner."

After the War of 1812, Baltimore experienced phenomenal growth, largely because of the National RoadNational Road,
U.S. highway built in the early 19th cent. At the time of its construction, the National Road was the most ambitious road-building project ever undertaken in the United States. It finally extended from Cumberland, Md., to St.
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. When the Erie Canal (completed in 1825) endangered the city's hold on trans-Allegheny traffic, Baltimore businessmen chartered (1827) the Baltimore & Ohio RRBaltimore & Ohio Railroad
(B&O), first U.S. public railroad, chartered in 1827 by a group of Baltimore businessmen to regain trans-Allegheny traffic lost to the newly opened Erie Canal.
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 to meet the competition of New York as the ocean outlet for the West. During the Civil War, Baltimore was strongly pro-Southern in sentiment; the 6th Massachusetts Regiment, passing through the city in Apr., 1861, was attacked by a mob. A disastrous fire in 1904 destroyed almost the entire downtown but enabled the emergence of a better planned city.

In World Wars I and II, Baltimore was an important shipbuilding and supply-shipping center. During the 1960s and 70s, however, Baltimore decayed rapidly, losing population and commerce, largely to neighboring suburbs. Urban redevelopment in the late 1970s and 1980s included the construction of Harborplace (shops and restaurants) in the Inner Harbor area, the National Aquarium, shopping pavilions, hotels, a convention center, the Maryland Science Center, and the American Visionary Art Museum. Waterside renewal continued through the 1990s, and old neighborhoods such as Fells Point became newly popular. In 1983 a rapid-transit line to the suburbs was opened. In 1992, Baltimore's professional baseball team, the Orioles, moved to the new Oriole Park at Camden Yards; the National Football League's Ravens began play nearby in 1998.

Bibliography

See J. T. Scharf, History of Baltimore (1881; repr. in 2 vol., 1971) and The Chronicles of Baltimore (1874, repr. 1972); S. Olsen, Baltimore (1976) and Baltimore: The Building of an American City (1980); R. Miller et al., Baltimore (1988).

Baltimore (Independent City), Maryland

100 N Holliday St
Baltimore, MD 21202
Phone: (410) 396-3100
Fax: (410) 396-9568
www.ci.baltimore.md.us

In northern MD on Patapsco River, upper Chesapeake Bay, 41 mi. northeast of Washington, DC. Founded 1729; incorporated 1796. Distinct from and independent of Baltimore County since 1851, with the same political power as a county. Major East Coast port. Headquarters of McCormick & Co, world's largest producer of spices and seasonings. Other industries include steel, chemicals, and manufacture of radar and other electronic equipment. Site of Johns Hopkins University. Site of Fort McHenry, whose bombardment by the British in 1814 inspired Francis Scott Key (1779-1843) to write The Star-Spangled Banner. Name Origin: For the barony of Baltimore in Ireland, source of the hereditary title Lord Baltimore of the Calvert family, proprietors of the colony of MD

Area (sq mi):: 92.08 (land 80.80; water 11.27) Population per square mile: 7869.00
Population 2005: 635,815 State rank: 4 Population change: 2000-20005 -2.40%; 1990-2000 -11.50% Population 2000: 651,154 (White 31.00%; Black or African American 64.30%; Hispanic or Latino 1.70%; Asian 1.50%; Other 2.50%). Foreign born: 4.60%. Median age: 35.00
Income 2000: per capita $16,978; median household $30,078; Population below poverty level: 22.90% Personal per capita income (2000-2003): $24,789-$27,828
Unemployment (2004): 7.40% Unemployment change (from 2000): 3.00% Median travel time to work: 31.10 minutes Working outside county of residence: 38.10%
Cities with population over 10,000: None
See other counties in .

Baltimore

1
1. David. born 1938, US molecular biologist: shared the Nobel prize for physiology or medicine (1975) for his discovery of reverse transcriptase
2. Lord. See (Sir George) Calvert

Baltimore

2
a port in N Maryland, on Chesapeake Bay. Pop.: Pop.: 628 670 (2003 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Many Baltimore fans who still remember the anguish of losing an NFL franchise are a bit sheepish about rooting for the team formerly known as the Cleveland Browns.
The long-term competitiveness of the PKI business requires critical mass and beTRUSTed has emerged as an excellent partner to take our PKI technology and customer base to the next level," said Bijan Khezri, Chief Executive Officer of Baltimore Technologies plc.
Baltimore is at the forefront of delivering high-end trust infrastructures to the world's leading e-government projects," said Gavan Egan, Senior Vice President Asia Pacific for Baltimore Technologies.
We are delighted to acquire the business and to develop broader relationships with certain of Baltimore's world-class, financial services clients, who will benefit from our Baltimore product and service expertise, industry skills and strong global presence.
The Czech Post is a long term Baltimore customer and this new project confirms the synergy between our companies," said Patrick Jourdas, Senior Vice President EMEA Operations of Baltimore Technologies.
Frontline Solutions and Baltimore also announced a new contract with one of Asia's most prominent financial sector service providers for an upgraded PKI system based on Baltimore UniCERT(TM).
The launch is part of today's HP Baltimore Digital Village second anniversary celebration, featuring government officials, HP executives and Baltimore Digital Village executives.
DigiNotar already operates as a commercial CA, using Baltimore UniCERT(TM) PKI technology, and is now expanding its service offering by securing web sessions for Dutch public and private organisations.
We chose Baltimore as it is one of the leading providers of high-end trust infrastructure to the e-government sector worldwide and it met the requirements we had set for the co-operation.
As we roll out the brand and start implementation, partnerships with Baltimore Technologies and HP are important to ensure a fully secure platform over which insurance brokers and underwriters can transfer data electronically.
The solution was successfully deployed using Baltimore UniCERT(TM) with the Advanced Registration Module (ARM), KeyTools cryptographic toolkits and Hardware Security Module (HSM).
Baltimore UniCERT(TM), the company's flagship Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) product, will underpin the online payments systems within the Banking sector to assure the integrity and authenticity of all transactions.

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