Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese
1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)
While resistance to the move to independence was most notable in then South Borneo--especially among Ngaju Dayaks, who feared that they would be incorporated into an Islamic Banjarese
state (Miles 1976:112-114; Harwell 2000:53-54)--in the part of West Kalimantan where I have worked, Dayaks in the 1980s also recalled their opposition to the resumption of Malay rule.
However, in June 1707 the Banjarese
destroyed fortifications that the English had started to construct, along with two vessels, and the English departed in defeat (Willi 1922:10-17).
Malays include those who have settled in the country (mainly in the Malay Peninsula) since the 19th century such as Javanese, the Banjarese
, Boyanese, Bugis, Bajau and Minangkabau.
(18) During fieldwork in Banjarmasin, many people stressed the still very strong patriarchal character of Banjarese
Islam and society; for example, polygamy is widespread.
However, why the Madurese community, which was small compared to other immigrant groups, especially the Javanese and Banjarese
, became the sole target of Dayak hostility is not entirely clear.
Mangun argued that the Catholic Church should not dream of converting Indonesian ethnic groups who are known as Muslims, such as Madurese, Sundanese, Acehnese, Banjarese
, and Minangese (Mangunwijaya, Memuliakan Allah, mengangkat Manusia, p.
This sociolinguistic study investigated the hypothesis that the Indonesian language (IL) is encroaching upon Banjarese
Malay (BM), focusing on the fact that these two related languages form a diglossic situation, whereby IL performs the high function and BM performs the low function.
These demands were partly a response to the Darul Islam movement to create an Islamic state, which was widely supported by the Banjarese
people who dominated the existing South Kalimantan province.
In S village there were also Banjarese
though their number is quite small compared with the Javanese-Malays.
At close inspection, however, a further six have to be eliminated as evidence for a close link because they do occur in Malayic languages, such as Minangkabau (ma-aru "to stir food", buyah "foam"), Banjarese
(bilak "open"), Than (mulung "sago") and Salako in West Kalimantan (amuukng "sago", bariha "to have diarrhoea "); the relation between BM alapan "part of the deceased's personal possessions which is given as an act of piety" and Bacan Malay alapi "to take something on behalf of another" should also be tested against various other reflexes of Proto-Malayic *alap "to take".
das dajacksche hantuen' and Jay (1993: 157) explains that: "Ngaju vampires or hantuen, also kuyang (Banjarese
) are described as "humans who are not human" because they feed on the blood of the newly deceased, the newly bom, or of pregnant women." In Ma'anyan the terms hantuen and kuyang are used as synonyms for the associated phenomenon of "flying heads." The Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (1991) glosses kuyang as "ghost of a woman, who according to the inhabitants of East Kalimantan, can let their head and intestines fly and feeds on the blood of pregnant women or those that have given birth to a baby." And finally, Hapip glosses kuyang in his Banjar Dictionary (2008) as 'kuntilanak', i.e.