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1. an association of business enterprises or individuals organized to undertake a joint project requiring considerable capital
2. any association formed to carry out an enterprise or enterprises of common interest to its members
3. a board of syndics or the office of syndic
4. (in Italy under the Fascists) a local organization of employers or employees
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(1) One form of monopolistic, cartel-type agreement, aimed at establishing control over the market primarily of a single, mass-produced product and made for the purpose of eliminating competition between monopolies in the marketing and purchasing of raw materials and, thus, for the purpose of obtaining the greatest profit (seeCARTEL). Syndicate members sell their products and purchase their raw materials through a single sales office. The sales office receives all orders and distributes them in accordance with the quotas agreed upon by the monopolies, which deliver their commodities to the office at a price previously agreed on. Syndicate members maintain their independence as far as production and legal status are concerned; in contrast to a cartel, however, they lose their commercial independence.

Syndicates flourished in the early 20th century until World War II in Germany, France, and other countries, mostly in the extractive industries. Interwar Germany had several hundred syndicates, the largest being the Rhine-Westphalia Coal Syndicate and the German Potash Syndicate. Prerevolutionary Russia also had syndicates, such as Prodamet (metallurgy), Produ-gol’ (Donets Basin coal), and Med’ (copper), which controlled the marketing of as much as 90 percent of production in the corresponding branches of industry.

Syndicates, as a form of monopolistic agreement within a given branch of industry, have lost their former importance. Antitrust laws have limited horizontal concentration, that is, concentration within a given branch of industry, and high levels of monopolization prevail in most such branches; thus, other, more flexible forms of monopolistic agreement have come into use (seeCAPITALIST MONOPOLIES).

(2) In the USSR, during the period of the New Economic Policy, a type of economic organization that combined a group of industrial trusts for the wholesale marketing of production, the purchasing of raw materials, and the planning of trade operations. The first Soviet syndicate—the All-Union Textile Syndicate—was created in 1922; in the period 1922–28 a total of 23 syndicates were in operation. Syndicates were eliminated in 1929 and 1930.


Lenin, V. I. Imperializm, kak vysshaia stadiia kapitalizma. In Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 27.
Hilferding, R. Finansovyi kapital. Moscow, 1959. (Translated from German.)
Motylev, V. E. Finansovyi kapital i ego organizatsionnye formy. Moscow, 1959.
Khmel’nitskaia, E. L. Ocherki sovremennoi monopolii. Moscow, 1971.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


organized crime unit throughout major cities of the United States. [Am. Hist.: NCE, 2018]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, it has been forced to reduce the amount after the banking syndicate refused to accept the proposal.
"We have also negotiated pounds 6m of investment in the group from its UK banking syndicate so that when the markets recover we have the funding to grow as these markets grow."
The first financial impact derives from the collective transactional volume of the banking syndicate structure on bank service pricing.
The EIB said the banking syndicate is committed to making markets in amounts of DM 10-25 million on a 10-pfennig bid-offer spread.
24 May 2012 - A banking syndicate including First National Bank of Central Texas (FNBCT) and Central National Bank has lent USD15m (EUR12m) to FirstCity Financial Corporation (NASDAQ:FCFC), the US financial services company said on Wednesday.
Without identifying the source of its information, the newspaper said that discussions between TPG and the banking syndicate were in their early stages and no decision has been made on borrowing terms and loan size.
(ADPnews) - Nov 27, 2009 - Austrian real-estate group Immofinanz (WBAG:IIA) and its subsidiary Immoeast (WBAG:IEA) have successfully closed negotiations with a banking syndicate on the repayment of a EUR 415 million (USD 617.2m) credit.
The company has announced that The Royal Bank of Scotland PLC (RBS) and the company's banking syndicate have agreed to lend the company up to CAD47.5m, repayable on demand with a maturity date of January 31, 2009.
The Darlington-based group, which has an outstanding debt that has been estimated at pounds 80m by broker Brewin Dolphin, has been locked in talks with its banking syndicate throughout October in an attempt to get the business back on an even keel.
The funding has been provided by a banking syndicate led by Barclays and including The Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) and Clydesdale Bank.
It said yesterday it remained focused on resolving its debt levels and that it was in continuing "constructive discussions" on the matter, with the support of its banking syndicate. Meanwhile, progress on cost reduction and the development of additional revenue streams had continued, the Slough company noted.