Pao-Chia

(redirected from Baojia)

Pao-Chia

 

before the victory of the people’s revolution of 1949 in China, a system of administrative and police organization of peasant homesteads into special pao, or units of 100 homesteads, and chia, which united up to 1,000 homesteads. The pao-chia system existed from ancient times. It was usually used for mutual guaranty, mutual surveillance, struggle against opponents of the authorities, and extortion of taxes from the people.

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Xuefei Liu, (1) Chao Zhang (iD), (2) Pingzeng Liu, (1) Maoling Yan, (1) Baojia Wang, (1) Jianyong Zhang, (1) and Russell Higgs (iD) (3)
In addition, families were allowed to sell all production that exceeded the compulsory quotas sold to the state on the open market, with state-planned (baojia) and market prices (shijia) coexisting.
I would like to thank Mart Laanemets, Feng Zheng, Zhengzhang Shangfang, Ago Kunnap, Urmas Sutrop, Li Baojia and Jaan Kaplinski (ordered by date) for their published support inspired by my earlier publications on Sino-Finnic.
(217) It was a sort of "Dear Abby" for rural busybodies or those who might watch and report on their neighbors in a modern-day incarnation of the baojia system.
This may have resulted from the policy of forced departure of the population by the authorities and the enforcement of the baojia system.
assess, collect, and deliver taxes, [and perform] police-like mutual surveillance." (20) This practice continued through the Yuan dynasty and was further developed into much more elaborate local administrative schemes in the Ming involving the so-called lijia system [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], fangzhang system [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], qunzhang system [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and baojia system [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].
Historically China had a baojia system that managed local population by residency.
The other three great works are Guanchang xianxingji [CHINESE CHARACTER NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Bureaucracy Exposed) by Li Baojia [CHINESE CHARACTER NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) (1867-1906), Ershinian muduzhi guaixianzhuang [CHINESE CHARACTER NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Strange Things Seen in the Last Twenty Years) by Wu Woyao [CHINESE CHARACTER NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (1866-1910), and Niehai hua [CHINESE CHARACTER NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (The Flower in the Sea of Retribution) by Zeng Pu [CHINESE CHARACTER NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (1872-1935).
(51) With the abolishment of the baojia system (being putatively a remnant of corrupt feudalism), organizing a mass support network to fill the vacuum in governance became a central concern of the new regime in post-Liberation Shanghai.
For more on the bao jia system in the Ming, see Sakai Tadao, "Mindai zen chuki no hoka sei ni tsuite," in Shimuzu Hakushi tsuito kinen, pp.577-610; Chen Baoliang, "Mingdai de baojia yu huojia," Mingshi yanjiu3 (1993): 59-66, 134.
According to a Qing administrative regulation, each professional beggar was to be registered under the baojia system and issued an identification board by county yamen.