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hair on the lower portion of the face. The term mustache refers to hair worn above the upper lip. Attitudes toward facial hair have varied in different cultures. In ancient Egypt, as well as Turkey and India, the beard was regarded as a sign of dignity and wisdom. Beards continued into the Greek civilization until the 4th cent. B.C., when Alexander the Great ordered his soldiers shaved. The Romans, however, actually introduced the practice of regular shaving. The belief that the beard denotes wisdom was widespread in ancient China, and the cult of the beard has been dominant in Middle Eastern cultures from ancient times to the recent past. As a symbol of virility and status, the beard has often acquired religious significance. Muhammad enjoined his followers to grow beards; the Sikhs of India are not permitted to remove a single hair from their bodies; and the patriarchs of the tribes of Israel were bearded. Hindus, on the other hand, have traditionally been clean-shaven. Prior to the 7th cent., most Anglo-Saxons wore beards, but with the spread of Christianity, beards were discouraged. However, since that time beards of all sizes and shapes have appeared and disappeared with the cycles of fashion. The guardsman's mustache of the 18th and early 19th cent. was the sign of an army man, and after 1830 the beard became the emblem of the French radicals. In the 20th cent. beards and mustaches were generally out of fashion until the 1960s when, together with long hair, they became popular with young people.


See R. Reynolds, Beards (1950).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.


McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. the hair growing on the lower parts of a man's face
2. any similar growth in animals
3. a tuft of long hairs in plants such as barley and wheat; awn
4. the gills of an oyster
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


Beards are usually associated with masculinity, wisdom, strength; and the men who have them typically command respect. Moses, Jesus, Charles Darwin, and Abraham Lincoln all had beards. Old dream interpretation books say that dreaming of bearded men is a good omen, and good luck will follow. On the other hand, dreaming about women with beards is said to be bad luck. It’s no wonder that traditionally a woman who is strong, wise, and who commands respect was considered threatening. If you are a woman dreaming that you have a beard, you may be dealing with your own issues of power. You may be using more masculine energy than you would like to or than is necessary. Also, since beards conceal the faces of those who have them, they may symbolize negative characteristics, such as deception, extreme guardedness, or of the shadow (Bluebeard, a folktale by Charles Perrault).
Bedside Dream Dictionary by Silvana Amar Copyright © 2007 by Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
La poesia de Enslin se conecta con otros de los nombres traducidos por Barba de Abejas: Schierloh define a Enslin como "un buen discipulo de Henry D.
Rosenthal said that growing and roasting the coffee is only part of what La Barba offers.
Keywords: Vallejo, Fernando; Barba Jacob, Porfirio; Silva, Jose Asuncion; Barba Jacob el mensajero; Chapolas negras; La rambla paralela; dandy in literature; biography.
Barba, whose contract with Cronulla was terminated in 2012, after he tested positive for cocaine, was sacked by the Cowboys without playing a game for them and banned from the NRL, a suspension which also rules out any possible return to Super League.
"The provincial government of Camarines Norte condemns the murder of Agent Enrico Barba. As the head of this province, we reiterate our commitment to human rights.
Calaguas said Barba was supposed to meet with a tipster who could divulge information on the planned operation before he went missing on Monday midnight.
This is at least to mandate the relevant agencies [to complete public works] for continuity,' Barba explained.
Barba, who was a contestant in the sixth season of "American Idol" in 2007, also appeared on an episode of "Fear Factor" in 2012.
Barba (far right) was caught on a casino's CCTV in a physical altercation with his long-term partner and mother of his four children Ainslie Currie.
The incident is being investigated by Queensland police and Barba looks likely to be banned for life by the NRL.