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hair on the lower portion of the face. The term mustache refers to hair worn above the upper lip. Attitudes toward facial hair have varied in different cultures. In ancient Egypt, as well as Turkey and India, the beard was regarded as a sign of dignity and wisdom. Beards continued into the Greek civilization until the 4th cent. B.C., when Alexander the Great ordered his soldiers shaved. The Romans, however, actually introduced the practice of regular shaving. The belief that the beard denotes wisdom was widespread in ancient China, and the cult of the beard has been dominant in Middle Eastern cultures from ancient times to the recent past. As a symbol of virility and status, the beard has often acquired religious significance. Muhammad enjoined his followers to grow beards; the Sikhs of India are not permitted to remove a single hair from their bodies; and the patriarchs of the tribes of Israel were bearded. Hindus, on the other hand, have traditionally been clean-shaven. Prior to the 7th cent., most Anglo-Saxons wore beards, but with the spread of Christianity, beards were discouraged. However, since that time beards of all sizes and shapes have appeared and disappeared with the cycles of fashion. The guardsman's mustache of the 18th and early 19th cent. was the sign of an army man, and after 1830 the beard became the emblem of the French radicals. In the 20th cent. beards and mustaches were generally out of fashion until the 1960s when, together with long hair, they became popular with young people.


See R. Reynolds, Beards (1950).




1. the hair growing on the lower parts of a man's face
2. any similar growth in animals
3. a tuft of long hairs in plants such as barley and wheat; awn
4. the gills of an oyster


Beards are usually associated with masculinity, wisdom, strength; and the men who have them typically command respect. Moses, Jesus, Charles Darwin, and Abraham Lincoln all had beards. Old dream interpretation books say that dreaming of bearded men is a good omen, and good luck will follow. On the other hand, dreaming about women with beards is said to be bad luck. It’s no wonder that traditionally a woman who is strong, wise, and who commands respect was considered threatening. If you are a woman dreaming that you have a beard, you may be dealing with your own issues of power. You may be using more masculine energy than you would like to or than is necessary. Also, since beards conceal the faces of those who have them, they may symbolize negative characteristics, such as deception, extreme guardedness, or of the shadow (Bluebeard, a folktale by Charles Perrault).
References in periodicals archive ?
Rosenthal said that growing and roasting the coffee is only part of what La Barba offers.
Asi, se definio que existen en el canton de Belen dos casos concretos de zonas de vulnerabilidad con respecto al acuifero Barba, segun se muestra en la figura 4a y 4b (metodo GOD especifico para el area estudiada) a saber:
Barba received his MD from New Jersey Medical School.
If he and fellow Aussie international Andrew Fifita make the sort of impact they did against Canberra, they can make inroads into a Brisbane defence that was flaky at best against the Rabbitohs and allow the likes of Barba and scheming hooker Michael Ennis to wreak havoc.
Barba, the tables would retail for at least $1,000 each.
En su paso por Latinoamerica, las voces poeticas de Miguel Angel Osorio Benitez, Main Ximenez, Ricardo Arenales y, finalmente, Porfirio Barba Jacob, se fueron quedando en diferentes revistas y periodicos de paises como El Salvador, Colombia, Honduras, Guatemala, Cuba y Mexico, sin preocuparse demasiado por la compilacion de sus textos y mucho menos por la obtencion del reconocimiento.
Rather than fixed wings, animal fliers have flapping wings," Barba said.
IN ROSA BARBAS enigmatic twenty-two-minute film Outwardly from.
Palabras claves: Vallejo, Fernando; Barba Jacob, Porfirio; Silva, Jose Asuncion; Barba Jacob el mensajero; Chapolas negras; La rambla paralela; dandy en la literatura; biografia.
Like Ishmaelia, the war-torn backdrop of Evelyn Waugh's dark comedy Scoop (to which Shriver pays homage), Barba is real enough for the purposes of this novel.
Barba not only gives us an insight into the performer's secret art but also provides us with a poetics of the dilated body.