bark

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bark,

outer covering of the stem of woody plants, composed of waterproof cork cells protecting a layer of food-conducting tissue—the phloem or inner bark (also called bast). As the woody stem increases in size (see cambiumcambium
, thin layer of generative tissue lying between the bark and the wood of a stem, most active in woody plants. The cambium produces new layers of phloem on the outside and of xylem (wood) on the inside, thus increasing the diameter of the stem.
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), the outer bark of inelastic dead cork cells gives way in patterns characteristic of the species: it may split to form grooves; shred, as in the cedar; or peel off, as in the sycamore or the shagbark hickory. A layer of reproductive cells called the cork cambium produces new cork cells to replace or reinforce the old. The cork of commerce is the carefully harvested outer bark of the cork oak (Quercus suber), a native of S Europe. The phloem (see stemstem,
supporting structure of a plant, serving also to conduct and to store food materials. The stems of herbaceous and of woody plants differ: those of herbaceous plants are usually green and pliant and are covered by a thin epidermis instead of by the bark of woody plants.
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) conducts sap downward from the leaves to be used for storage and to nourish other plant parts. "Girdling" a tree, i.e., cutting through the phloem tubes, results in starvation of the roots and, ultimately, death of the tree; trees are sometimes girdled by animals that eat bark. The fiber cells that strengthen and protect the phloem ducts are a source of such textile fibers as hemp, flax, and jute; various barks supply tannin, cork (see cork oakcork oak,
name for an evergreen species of the oak genus (Quercus) of the family Fagaceae (beech family). The cork oak (Q. suber) is native to the Mediterranean region, where most of the world's commercial supply of cork is obtained.
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), dyes, flavorings (e.g., cinnamon), and drugs (e.g., quinine). The outer bark of the paper birch was used by Native Americans to make baskets and canoes.

bark

or

barque

(both: bärk), sailing vessel with three masts, of which the mainmast and the foremast are square-rigged while the mizzenmast is fore-and-aft-rigged. Although the word was once used to mean any small boat, later barks were sometimes quite large (up to 6,000 tons). In addition to the standard three-masted bark there are also four-masted barks (fore-and-aft-rigged on the aftermast) and barkentines, or three-masted vessels with the foremast square-rigged and the other masts fore-and-aft-rigged. Large numbers of barks were employed in carrying wheat from Australia to England before World War I; and in 1926 the bark Beatrice sailed from Fremantle, Western Australia, to London in 86 days.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

bark

[bärk]
(botany)
The tissues external to the cambium in a stem or root.
(metallurgy)
The decarburized layer formed beneath the scale on the surface of steel heated in air.
(naval architecture)
A three-masted sailing ship whose foremast and mainmast are square-rigged and whose mizzenmast is fore-and-aft-rigged.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

bark

The protective outer layer of a tree, composed of inner, conductive cells and outer corklike tissue.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

bark

1. a protective layer of dead corky cells on the outside of the stems of woody plants
2. an informal name for cinchona
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The authors thank Frederick Barken, MD, Ronald Epstein, MD, and Thomas Inui, MD, for their thoughtful comments on this work.
Resultatene fra denne studien viste at helsesostrenes arbeid med ungdommer i ungdomsskolen ofte preges av a bli staende i mellomposisjoner, altsa "mellom barken og veden".
Barken LR, BOrresen T, NjOs A (1987) Effect of soil compaction by tractor traffic on soil structure, denitrification, and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).
WHERE TO STAY Get a feel for Sweden's maritime past staying in the harbour on the Barken Viking, Gullbergskajen.
The promise of purity, an idealized conception of a singular identity expressed in immigration talk, had become an important ordering mechanism by the 1920s (Barken, 1996; Cose, 1992; Danials, 1997; Dinnerstein et.
Differing from the classical Greeks Policraticus replaced the Platonic idealized body with an elaborate, anthropomorphized anatomy of the state with the Republic's "armed" and "unarmed" hands representing the "final tool in the execution of the ruler's will" (Barken 72-73).
Lee Barken and others form the SoCalFreeNet.org Wireless Users Group, and their Wireless Hacking Projects For Wi-Fi Enthusiasts (193183637X, $39.95) is not to be missed, providing a practical foundation of wireless hacks which include using existing Ehternet cables to provide power to Access Points with no additional source of electricity, using WarDrive for wireless access points, and running Linux on Microsoft Xbox.
Lee Barken, CISSP, CCNA, MCP, CPA, is the co-director of the Strategic Technologies And Research (STAR) Center at San Diego State University.
In Utah, Barken International Inc., a demand charter service company with 26 years in business, began offering fractional ownership about five years ago.
In Gothenberg harbour, there is a majestic four-masted sailing ship Barken Viking which was the last cargo-sailing ship to ferry wheat, wood and fuel around the world.
At my house I have a jay He can make mony diverse leye He can barking as a fox He can lowe as a noxe He can crecu as a gos He can remy as a nasse in his cracche He can croden as a froge He can barken as a dogg He can cheteron as a wrenne He can chateryn as a henne He canne neye as a stede; Such a byrde yt were wode to fede.(133)