Barons' War

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Barons' War,

in English history, war of 1263–67 between King Henry IIIHenry III,
1207–72, king of England (1216–72), son and successor of King John. Reign
Early Years

Henry became king under a regency; William Marshal, 1st earl of Pembroke, and later Pandulf acted as chief of government, while Peter des Roches
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 and his barons. In 1261, Henry III renounced the Provisions of OxfordProvisions of Oxford,
1258, a scheme of governmental reform forced upon Henry III of England by his barons. In 1258 a group of barons, angered by the king's Sicilian adventure and the expenditures it entailed, compelled Henry to accept the appointment of a committee of 24
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 (1258) and the Provisions of Westminster (1259), which had vested considerable power in a council of barons, and reasserted his right to appoint councilors. The barons led by Simon de MontfortMontfort, Simon de, earl of Leicester,
1208?–1265, leader of the baronial revolt against Henry III of England. Early Life

He was born in France, the son of Simon de Montfort, leader of the Albigensian Crusade.
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, earl of Leicester, finally resorted to arms in 1263 and forced the king to reaffirm his adherence to the Provisions. In 1264 a decision in favor of the crown by Louis IX of France as arbitrator led to a renewal of war, but Montfort defeated Henry's forces in the battle of Lewes, and the king once again submitted to government by council. Early in 1265, Montfort summoned his famous representative ParliamentParliament,
legislative assembly of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Over the centuries it has become more than a legislative body; it is the sovereign power of Great Britain, whereas the monarch remains sovereign in name only.
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 to strengthen his position, which was threatened by the possibility of an invasion by Henry's adherents abroad. The invasion did not take place, but an uprising against Montfort of the Welsh "Marchers" (Englishmen along the Welsh border) led to his defeat by the king's son (later Edward IEdward I,
1239–1307, king of England (1272–1307), son of and successor to Henry III. Early Life

By his marriage (1254) to Eleanor of Castile Edward gained new claims in France and strengthened the English rights to Gascony.
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) at Evesham. Montfort was killed in the battle, but some baronial resistance continued until 1267. The barons had failed to establish their own control over the crown, but they had helped prepare the way for the constitutional developments of the reign of Edward I.


See R. F. Treharne, The Baronial Plan of Reform (1932, repr. 1972); F. M. Powicke, King Henry III and the Lord Edward (1947).

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References in periodicals archive ?
"Politics and Diplomacy in Late Quattrocento Italy: the Case of the Barons' War (1485-86)." In Florence and Italy.
The steps by which the king came to quarrel with him -- with the dire consequences of the Barons' War -- are traced in Nicholas C.
Neither side stood behind their commitments, and the charter was annulled by Pope Innocent III, leading to the First Barons' War. After John's death, the regency government of his young son, Henry III, reissued the document in 1216, stripped of some of its more radical content, in an unsuccessful bid to build political support for their cause.
The historian is also looking at how the battle for the rights enshrined the Magna Carta, the Barons' War and Scottish War of Independence affected the nation, and discovers the public were making their own changes as trade and industry began to develop in Bristol, Wales and the Black Countr y.
The castle was home to Justice Walter Hopton, who rose to fame in the Barons' War of the 1260s
In the mid 12th century Henry II took over the castle to counter an attack from his son's rebel army and in 1253 Henry III gave the castle to Simon de Montfort, but when the de Montforts turned against the Crown in the Barons' War of 1266 the castle was besieged.