Bashkortostan


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Bashkortostan

Bashkortostan (bäshkôrˈtĭstänˌ) or Bashkir Republic (băshkĭrˈ), constituent republic, 55,444 sq mi (143,600 sq km), E European Russia, in the S Urals, occupying the Belaya River basin. Ufa is the capital; other important cities are Sterlitamak, Beloretsk, and Ishimbay. The Trans-Siberian and South Siberian railroads cross the republic. Bashkortostan forms the eastern part of the Volga-Ural petroleum region and also has natural gas, coal, salt, iron, gold, copper, zinc, bauxite, and manganese deposits. The drilling, refining, and processing of oil is the predominant economic activity. About 40% of the land is forested, and sawmilling and the production of plywood and paper are important. Grains (especially wheat, rye, and oats) are the chief agricultural products. The republic's population is made up of Bashkirs (about 21%), Russians (about 40%), and Tatars (about 25%). The Bashkirs, a mixture of Finno-Ugric, Turkic, and Mongolian tribes, are a Muslim people who speak a Turkic language very close to Tatar. Historically, the Bashkirs were controlled by the Volga Bulgars and the Golden Horde, and later by the khanates of Kazan, Nogai, and Siberia. In 1557, during the reign of Ivan IV, they came under Muscovite rule. The Russians founded Ufa in 1574 and began colonization, dispossessing the Bashkirs, who revolted numerous times during the next two centuries (notably under Pugachev in 1773–75). In 1917 a Bashkir national government was formed, but the region experienced heavy fighting between the Red and White armies in the aftermath of the Russian Revolution. In 1919, the region was made the first autonomous Soviet republic. In 1990 the republic passed a declaration of sovereignty, and in 1991 it declared itself independent, although this declaration was not recognized by any other government. It was a signatory, under the name Republic of Bashkortostan, to the Mar. 31, 1992, treaty that created the Russian Federation (see Russia).
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References in periodicals archive ?
The revision of the Outlook to Positive reflects the consolidation of Bashkortostan's strong budgetary performance, with the operating margin consistently above 15% and surplus budgets amid maintenance of a net cash positive position on a sustained basis.
Samedov noted that Bashkortostan has a strong production and scientific potential in petrochemistry and pharmaceuticals.
The sides discussed cooperation between Bashkortostan and Uzbekistan.
Within the context of his Bashkortostan visit, Russian Federation President Medvedev, who visited the Mosque and got information the problems of the Muslim community.
Delivering a speech in the congress organized by the Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture (IRCICA) and the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ihsanoglu said that Russia and Islamic world would benefit from improvement of ties between themselves.
The 'BBB-' rating reflects Bashkortostan's sound budgetary performance, low direct risk and strong liquidity as well as its diversified economy.
A welcoming speech was delivered by President of Bashkortostan Rustem Khamitov and Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan Joomart Otorbayev.
A public lecture by President of Bashkortostan Rustem Khamitov will be organized.