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The book aims to share the beauty and the depths of feeling expressed in the texts, and includes poems by Abu Firas, Bashshar ibn Burd and Ibn Udhainah amongst others.
It was the Persian designation to The followers of Mani, founder of Manichaeism.(9) However, the term acquired a wider use during the Abbasid period to include not only those who preached heresies deemed to be a threat to the state and to Islam, but also those who exhibited irreverence toward The Shari'a, and libertarian tendencies.(10) In this category were many well known poets, such as Bashshar ibn Burd, Hammad Ajrad, Ishaq ibn Khalaf, and many others.(11) Poets accused each other of zandaqa.
Apart from Bashshar ibn Burd, a known Shi'ite sympathizer, other executions took place.