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The country code for Romania.
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The basic reproduction number ([R.sub.0] of measles: a systematic review.
The analysis illustrates the impossibility of backward bifurcation in the Listeriosis model, because there is no existence of endemic equilibrium whenever the basic reproduction number is less than one ([R.sub.0l] < 1).
So, to minimize the chances of a disease outbreak the intervention of control measures can be used such that the basic reproduction number is kept below unity (i.e., [R.sup.0] < 1).
To do this, we will investigate appropriately all of the possible parameters about the effect of various parameters to reduce basic reproduction number. [R.sub.0], close to one.
In this scenario, [R.sub.0] is exactly the basic reproduction number of Pastor-Satorras and Vespignani model in [19].
The basic reproduction number [R.sub.0] for system (3) can be obtained by using the method in [4].
Based on the practical meaning of the basic reproduction number (Describes the number of people who are infected in the average infection period when an infected person is involved in all the vulnerable populations.
which implies that the basic reproduction number can be decreased by increasing the efficacy of drug treatment.
The linear stability of [E.sub.0] is governed by the basic reproduction number [R.sub.0] which can be found from the next generation matrix [19] for the system.
[R.sub.0] is the critical threshold of model (7) that is called the basic reproduction number in the epidemic model.
The basic reproduction number for this model is given by

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