Basidiomycetes


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Basidiomycetes

[bə‚sid·ē·ō‚mī′sēd‚ēz]
(mycology)
A class of fungi in the subdivision Eumycetes; important as food and as causal agents of plant diseases.

Basidiomycetes

 

a class of higher fungi having special reproductive organs, or basidia. The typical mature basidium has four single-cell spores (basidiospores) located in special excrescences, or sterigmata. During germination each basid-iospore puts forth a septate primary (haploid mycelium) or a spawn. Thus, in most basidiomycetes a merging of cells of the same or different (heterothallic) spawns takes place. The diploid mycelium usually develops sexual bodies. (Rust fungi and smut fungi are spore bearing.) Later, meiosis occurs in the basidia (for smut and rust fungi, in the spores); this ends with the formation of usually four nuclei, which migrate to the now-developed basidiospores.

The class Basidiomycetes includes more than 15,000 species. Many of them are edible (for example, birch mushroom, cepe, and peppery lactarius), some are poisonous (fly agaric and death cup), some cause wood rot, and some destroy many agricultural crops. The classification of basidiomycetes is based upon the structural peculiarities of its sexual organs and spore bearing. Basidiomycetes are usually divided into two subclasses: Holobasidiomycetes, which has a single-cell basidium called the holobasidium, and Phragmobasidiomycetes, which has either a four-celled basidium, the so-called phragmobasidium, or a single-cell spheroid, pear-shaped, or elongated dichotomously bifurcate basidium. The subclass Holobasidiomycetes is divided into the following orders: (1) Exobasidiales, without sexual organs and basidia developing on the spawn under the epidermis of the feeding plant (parasites); (2) Aphyl-lophorales; (3) Agaricales; and (4) Gasteromycetales. The subclass Phragmobasidiomycetes is divided into the following orders: (1) Ustilaginales, (2) Uredinales, (3) Au-riculariales, (4) Tremellales, (5) Dacryomycetales, and (6) Tulasnellales. The sexual organs of the latter four orders are mostly of a jelly-like consistency. The phragmobasidia which grow on them are divided into four cells either crosswise, as in the Auriculariales, or lengthwise, as in the Tremellales; or they are single-cell basidia, dichotomously bifurcate, as in the Dacryomycetales, or spherical or pear-shaped, as in the Tulasnellales.

REFERENCES

Kursanov, L. I. Mikologiia, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1940.
Bondartsev, A. S. Trutovye griby Evropeiskoi chasti SSSR i Kav-kaza. Moscow-Leningrad, 1953.

T. L. NIKOLAEVA

References in periodicals archive ?
A case of infection caused by the basidiomycete Phellinus undulatus.
de Vries, "Prevalence of transcription factors in ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi," BMC Genomics, vol.
Cho et al., "Effect of culture conditions on growth and lipase production by a newly isolated strain, geotrichum-like R59 (Basidiomycetes)," Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture Kyushu University, vol.
Taxonomy, ecology and biogeography of Polypores (Basidiomycetes) from Argentinian Polylepis woodlands.
Comparison between mass loss of leached and unleached specimens tested against basidiomycetes. The dashed lines show the durability classifications based on XP CEN/TS 15083-1.
The only other field test data on incised commercial-sized lumber of refractory species treated with amine-copper--based preservatives that these authors are aware of is 3-year data on western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and white spruce at test sites in Jinju, Korea, with decay and termites and Petawawa, Canada, with an aggressive population of soil-inhabiting strand-forming copper-tolerant basidiomycetes (Wang et al.
El Shikh, "Antimicrobial activity of extracts of the oyster culinary medicinal mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (higher basidiomycetes) and identification of a new antimicrobial compound," International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, vol.
Gold, "Decolorization of several polymeric dyes by the lignin-degrading basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium," Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.
Khalili, "Antioxidant activity of different fractions of methanolic extract of the golden chanterelle mushroom Cantharellus cibarius (higher basidiomycetes) from Iran," International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, vol.
Singla, "A new species of Hyphoderma (Basidiomycetes) from India," Mycotaxon, vol.