Soviet power in Central Asia had been far from absolute until the late 1930s, as the Soviets had to deal with the Basmachi
Revolt (Rywkin 1990; Sokol 2016).
History is full of thwarted revolts and broken rebellions: Tiananmen Square in China, the Prague Spring, the Fronde, the Vendee Rebellion, the 1959 Tibetan Uprising, the 1953 East German protests, the March 1st Movement in Korea, the 2.28 Incident in Taiwan, the 1956 Hungarian revolution, the 1848 Hungarian revolution, the Basmachi
revolt against the Soviet Union, the Constitutionalist Revolution in Brazil, and many more.
For example, in discussing the postrevolutionary unrest in the Ferghana Valley (quickly labeled the "Basmachi
rebellion"), Khalid interprets it not in terms of an ethnic conflict but as "a struggle against the power cities cast over the countryside." The rebellion was directed not only against Bolsheviks or Russians but also against the Jadids.
He has authored the book The Basmachi
Movement in Soviet Central Asia and co-edited the publication Afghanistan and the Frontier.
The Russian armies conquered vast areas of Central Asia by 1864, Tashkent and Samarkand by 1874, only the Bukhara held out into the twentieth century, to be finally subdued in the bloody Basmachi
campaign of the 1920s.
Memories of the historical Basmachi
movement that slowed down the Soviet advance in the region; Moscow's ensuing suspicion that the region is explosive and unreliable; the Jeldoqsan protests in Alma-Ata, which forebore the end of the Soviet Union; two Tulip Revolutions in Kyrgyzstan; the protest alliance of "seemingly antithetical political forces", which included "pro-democracy movement" active in Dushanbe, religious forces, and supporters of an ex-communist leader, Nabiyev, in Tajikistan in opposition to the governing communist nomenklatura (Olcott 2005:45-46); and the active dissident diaspora are some of the examples, which underline the potential for development of a vibrant civil society and social capital mobilized for collective public good in the region.
Throughout the 1920s, the Basmachi
revolt fielded tens of thousands of guerrillas against the Soviet Union, fighting on behalf of an autonomous Shariah state and operating across most of Soviet Central Asia."
This took many forms including the subjugation of Islamic independence movements such as the so called "Basmachi
" movement and the attempt to develop closer ties with independent countries and liberations movements such as in Afghanistan and India.
Some went into exile, and some joined the anti-Bolshevik 'Basmachi
' revolt in Central Asia, but most of them decided to support the Bolshevik government.
* The Basmachi
revolt was an uprising against the Czarist imperial rule and later the Soviet Union by the Muslim, mostly Turkic people of Central Asia.
As the Bolsheviks attempted to regain Central Asia in the 1920s, an indigenous Central Asian resistance movement based in the Ferghana Valley, the "Basmachi
movement," resisted but was largely eliminated by 1925.
Soviet troops had fought guerrilla uprisings in Russia during the Civil War from 1918 to 1921, and by 1931 had successfully defeated the forces of the basmachi
in Central Asia.