The prolonged resistance of Central Asians (dubbed the Basmachi
Revolt by the Bolsheviks) during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920 led early Soviet officials to deport whole communities, especially of Tajiks and Uzbeks, across new administrative boundaries.
Russian military leaders did not learn the lessons of the Soviet anti-partisan campaigns against Russian peasants and the Basmachi
guerillas of Central Asia in the 1920s, of the straggles against Ukrainian and Baltic nationalists in the 1940s and early 1950s, of the Cuban-fought campaigns in Africa in the 1970s or of the war in Afghanistan.
Whether in the Afghan wars against the British, the long resistance to Russian expansion in Central Asia, or the Basmachi
revolt in the 1920s and 1930s against the Bolsheviks, Islam has always had a powerful role as a rallying symbol against the non-Muslim outsider.
LIKE THEIR PREDECESSORS, the anti-Bolshevik Basmachi guerrillas of the 1920s, Tajikstan's Islamists have retreated into the remote Pamir mountains for what may well prove to be their final stand.
The Communist government settled it with people brought from elsewhere to fill up land left vacant in the 1920s when some 200,000 anti-Communist Tajiks, supporters of the Basmachi guerrillas, fled to Afghanistan after the Bolshevik conquest of Central Asia.
Memories of the historical Basmachi
movement that slowed down the Soviet advance in the region; Moscow's ensuing suspicion that the region is explosive and unreliable; the Jeldoqsan protests in Alma-Ata, which forebore the end of the Soviet Union; two Tulip Revolutions in Kyrgyzstan; the protest alliance of "seemingly antithetical political forces", which included "pro-democracy movement" active in Dushanbe, religious forces, and supporters of an ex-communist leader, Nabiyev, in Tajikistan in opposition to the governing communist nomenklatura (Olcott 2005:45-46); and the active dissident diaspora are some of the examples, which underline the potential for development of a vibrant civil society and social capital mobilized for collective public good in the region.
Throughout the 1920s, the Basmachi
revolt fielded tens of thousands of guerrillas against the Soviet Union, fighting on behalf of an autonomous Shariah state and operating across most of Soviet Central Asia.
He was involved in hostilities against basmachi
(anti-Soviet resistance in Central Asia in 1920-s-1930-s).
[Assailants in Turkic languages] insurrection of 1918-1926 against Soviet rule in Turkestan affected the areas of southern Kazakhstan in the form of ethnic conflict between the Russian settlers and native Muslims.
For details on the locations of the Museum, see Faraj Basmachi
, Treasures of the Iraq Museum (Baghdad: Ministry of Information, 1975-76), 9.
Not until the mid-1930s were the last of the basmachi
, as these guerillas were called, finally defeated and driven into Afghanistan.
An army reputed to have developed creative methods for tactical and operational employment of armed forces under various conditions in different theaters of military action had hardly digested the lessons from the Basmachi
war in Central Asia (1919-33) or the counterinsurgency war in Vietnam.