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ancient tribes that settled along the lower Danube about 200 B.C. The question of the origin of the Bastarnae is in dispute. Many scholars consider them Germans, but others believe them to be Celts. In 168 B.C. and from 88–61 B.C., they united with Macedonia in war against Rome. In 29 B.C., they were defeated by the Roman general Marcus Licinius Crassus and thrown back across the Danube, from which under Emperor Probus they were resettled into Thrace in A.D. 279–280.