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an Indonesian people living in northern Sumatra and numbering about 2.5 million (1967 estimate).

On the basis of linguistic and ethnographic characteristics, the Bataks can be divided into six groups: the Toba, the Karo, the Timur, the Pakpak, the Ankola, and the Mandai-ling. Their languages are Batak. The Bataks are primarily Muslim, although some of the Toba are Christian and the Karo have preserved their traditional beliefs. Strong tribal elements have survived until the present day. The Bataks are primarily farmers growing rice, corn, sweet potatoes, and other crops, although they also practice the arts of weaving, pottery-making, metalworking, building, and wood carving. Trade and commercial relations have been developing since the beginning of the 20th century, but elements of the natural farm economy have been preserved. From the very beginning of the Dutch colonization of Sumatra (in the 17th century), the Bataks have stubbornly defended their independence.


Narody Iugo-Vostochnoi Azii. Moscow, 1966.


References in periodicals archive ?
Ilarion, who took part in the first ever commemoration and solemn mass in veneration of the newly canonized Batak victims, informed the Russian Holy Synod of the canonization of Bulgarian people who perished for their faith, nation and homeland in 1876.
During a party meeting in the town of Batak, scheduled as an event to pay homage to Batak martyrs killed by Ottoman Forces, Siderov voiced strong criticism towards GERB, calling them national traitors over their refusal to declare May 17 "Day of National Genocide against Bulgarian People Committed by Turkey.
Poleksic, Pavicevic, Batak, Tanasijevic, Jovanovic, Pekovic, Drincic, Bozovic (Vukcevic 55), Zverotic, Jovetic, Vucinic.
Meanwhile, the Ataka press center informed that media publications party supporters have burst in the Batak Town Hall, insulting municipal employees, are false, citing the spokesperson of the police in the city of Pazardzhik, who had said that public order had not been violated.
The most blatant offence saw Radoslav Batak fall in a heap on top of Stephen Hunt's cross under no apparent pressure, clearly resting his hand on the ball.
Members and followers of Bulgaria's far-right, nationalist Ataka party marred Tuesday the ceremony dedicated to the martyrs of the Batak massacre.
PROBABLE MONTENEGRO TEAM: V Poleksic (Debrecen) - S Pavicevic (Energie Cottbus), R Batak (Ankaraspor), J Tanasijevic (Dinamo Moscow), V Bozovic (Rapid Bucharest) - M Pekovic (MSV Mainz), N Drincic (Amkar Perm) - S Vukcevic (Sporting Lisbon), B Boskovi.
Plovdiv metropolitan bishop Nikolay is holding a solemn mass Tuesday morning in veneration of the newly cannonized victims of the Batak Massacre in 1876.
Architectural traditions and unique character of the Bulgarian village life can be seen in such places as Tryavna, Batak, Chiflika and Aprilci.
In 2007 Baleva raised controversy in Bulgaria by investigating how art helped create the story of the Batak Massacre (1876), in which Bulgarian civilians, including women and children, were slaughtered en masse.
During what became infamously known as the Batak Massacre, thousands of Bulgarians, including women and children, were killed by armed Ottoman forces in the wake of the failed 1876 April Uprising that aimed at Bulgaria's liberation from the Empire.