Batavian Republic

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Batavian Republic

Batavian Republic, name for the Netherlands in the years (1795–1806) following conquest by the French during the French Revolutionary Wars. The United Provinces of the Netherlands were reconstituted as the Batavian Republic in 1795 and remained under French occupation and tutelage. In 1801, Napoleon imposed a new constitution on the republic, which was financially drained by French requisitions, and in 1806 he transformed the Batavian Republic into the kingdom of Holland under the domain of his brother Louis Bonaparte. The name Batavi derives from the name of an ancient German tribe that fought for its freedom against the Romans who occupied its land. This struggle has been the source of Dutch national mythology.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Batavian Republic


(1795–1806), founded as a result of the entry of French Republican troops into Dutch territory in January 1795 combined with an uprising by the local population in January, February, and March 1795. It was named after the Batavi, who in ancient times inhabited the territory of what is now the Netherlands.

The military-political alliance of the Batavian Republic with France in May 1795 laid the basis for the republic’s dependence upon France and foreordained its participation in France’s wars against the anti-French coalition. The internal political development of the Batavian Republic was characterized by a sharp struggle by the petite and middle bourgeoisie, supported by the masses, against the predominance of the big commercial bourgeoisie and the financial oligarchy.

A draft constitution for the republic was prepared by a national assembly convened on Mar. 1, 17%. Predominant influence in this assembly was held by representatives of the upper bourgeoisie, and the draft constitution was rejected by the overwhelming majority of the population. The radical elements, having gained the advantage at the following election (January 1798), removed the conservatives from power and introduced the constitution of 1798, which was intended to eradicate the vestiges of feudalism in the country. However, a reactionary coup carried out in June 1798 prevented the bourgeois-democratic rights and liberties proclaimed by this constitution from being put into practice. In 1801 a new constitution, negating all democratic advances, was imposed on the Batavian Republic. In 1805 on the insistence of Napoleon, R. J. Schimmelpenninck, the so-called council pensionary, was placed in charge of the republic with dictatorial powers. In May-June 1806, Napoleon transformed the Batavian Republic into the Kingdom of the Netherlands (1806–10), and his brother Louis Bonaparte was proclaimed king.


Colenbrander, H. T. De Bataafsche republiek. Amsterdam, 1908.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
This interpretation seems most plausible for the Batavian Republic, to some extent for its Helvetic counterpart, and rather less so for the Italian governments.
In the subsequent chapters, Van Niel provides a broad and detailed survey of the ideological debates and attempts at reform underlying the 'regime changes' after the bankruptcy of the VOC in 1799, and the taking over of Java (and other Dutch colonies in Asia) by the Batavian republic, the Lodewijk monarchy, and the British administration between 1808 and 1816.
The Antiquity of the Batavian Republic, with the Notes by Petrus Scriverius
The fight against smallpox became a government issue only after Napoleon invaded the Dutch Republic and installed the Batavian Republic in 1796 which was modeled after the centralized French state.
In 1806, acting as self-appointed overlord of Europe, Napoleon transformed the Batavian Republic, one of the bastions of European bourgeois life, into the Kingdom of Holland, under his brother Louis-Napoleon.
Meanwhile, the French army invaded the Netherlands in 1795, captured the Dutch fleet, and established the Batavian Republic as a French puppet.
There are 209 days left in the year 661 - Isaac Newton admitted as a student to Trinity College, Cambridge 1783 - Joseph amp; Jacques Montgolfier make first public balloon flight 1806 - Batavian Republic becomes the Kingdom of Holland 1833 - Ada Lovelace (future 1st computer programmer) meets Charles Babbage 1849 - Danish National Day-Denmark becomes a constitutional monarchy 1863 - CSS 'Alabama' captures the 'Tailsman' in the Mid Atlantic 1910 - J Helffrich discovers asteroids #699 Hela amp; #700 Auravictrix 1926 - Indians triple-play Yankees amp; win 15-3 1933 - US goes off gold standard .
The 11 papers, five in French and one in German, consider such aspects as Dutch interest in American constitutional developments during the early 19th century, the constitutional development of the Grand Duchy of Berg (1806-13), the views of Georg Friedrich von Martens (1756-1821) on the revolutionary and Napoleonic age and international relations in Europe, and the Batavian Republic and the Franco-Anglo peace.
In 1795 the Netherlands were conquered by France and renamed the Batavian Republic. One of the revolutionary government's first moves was to dissolve the VOC, assume its colonial possessions and the responsibility for defending them.