Batumi(redirected from Batoum)
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Batum(bəto͝om`), city (1990 est. pop. 136,609), capital of Adjarian Autonomous RepublicAdjarian Autonomous Republic
or Ajarian Autonomous Republic
, formerly Adzhar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
, autonomous region (1990 pop. 382,600), c.
..... Click the link for more information. , in W Georgia, on the Black Sea near the Turkish border. A major port and trade center, it is also the terminus of the Trans-Caucasian RR and an oil pipeline. Batumi is an important petroleum-shipping port and has oil refineries, shipyards, and food-processing plants. Batumi is also a seaside resort, with a botanical garden and neighboring national park. Site of the ancient Greek colony of Batis, the city belonged to Georgia in the Middle Ages, fell to the Turks in the late 16th cent., and passed to Russia in 1878.
a city in Georgia, capital of the Adzhar ASSR. It is located on the southern shore of a deep bay in the southeastern part of the Black Sea and has a population of 101,000 (1970 census; in 1926, 45,000; in 1939, 70,000). Batumi is an important industrial and resort city. A major port, it is the terminus of the Baku-Batumi railroad line. Two major highways connect it with Samtredia and Akhaltsikhe.
Batumi arose on the site of the Tamaristsikhe Fortress and was rebuilt in the 10th-13th centuries. It was known by the name of Batomi. In the 17th century the city was taken by the Turks, but by the 1878 Congress of Berlin it was annexed by Russia. Following the construction of the Baku-Batumi railroad in 1883, the rebuilding of the harbor, and the construction of the pipeline connecting Batumi with Baku (1897–1907), Batumi became a major port for Russia’s foreign trade in petroleum products. At the turn of the 20th century, Batumi became an important industrial center with about 11,000 workers. It was in this period that social democratic workers’ circles arose. Late in 1901 the Batumi committee of the RSDLP was created, which soon organized the Batumi strike and demonstration of 1902. On July 17, 1903, the workers of Batumi joined the general strike in Transcaucasia. On the night of Nov. 29, 1905, an armed uprising which was savagely suppressed began in the city. In April 1918, Batumi was taken by the Turks, only to be occupied by British troops in December 1918. In July 1920 the British interventionists were forced to leave the city, but they transferred power to the Georgian Mensheviks, who concluded an agreement with Turkey. On Mar. 11,1921, Turkish troops marched into Batumi, and on March 18 the city’s workers rose up in armed rebellion. The Red Army marched into Batumi on March 19, and Soviet power was established in the city, which became the capital of the Adzhar ASSR.
Major industrial enterprises have been built in Batumi during the years of socialist construction, including petroleum refineries (petroleum is transported by sea from the Northern Caucasus and by pipeline from Baku), machine-building plants (machinery and equipment for the tea-processing industry and other branches of the food industry), shipyards, tea plants, and a citrus fruit combine. In addition there is a woodworking combine, a milk plant, an asphalt and concrete plant, a plant for electrical instruments, one for battery-operated trucks, and a general electrical engineering plant. Batumi has the only caffeine plant in the Soviet Union; this plant operates on the basis of by-products from the tea industry.
Modern Batumi is being built up according to a regular plan. The harbor has been enlarged and rebuilt, and a new boardwalk and coastal park have been erected. Among the major public buildings that have been erected are the In-tourist Hotel (1939, designed by A. V. Shchusev), the Summer Theater (1948, designed by K. I. Dzhavakhishvili and B. M. Kirakosian), the Drama Theater (1952, designed by L. S. Teplitskii), and the Tbilisi Movie Theater (1964, designed by N. N. Abashidze).
Educational institutions in Batumi include the Shota Ru-staveli Pedagogical Institute; a maritime academy; medical, music, and cultural-educational schools; and a technicum of Soviet trade. The Museum of Adzharia is there, as well as the Museum of the Revolution. North of Batumi, near Zelenyi Mys, is the Batumi Botanical Gardens, founded in 1912, with a rich collection of tropical and subtropical plants.
A number of seaside resorts are located northeast of Batumi, along a 35–km narrow strip of coastline that varies from 2 to 7 km in width. These resorts—Makhindzhauri, Zelenyi Mys, Tsikhisdziri, and Kobuleti—are located in unusually picturesque surroundings, amid huge citrus plantations (oranges, lemons, and tangerines), banana trees, and groves of magnolia, bamboo, palm, eucalyptus, and laurel trees. Batumi’s climate is warm and humid, with an average yearly temperature of approximately 14° C and an annual precipitation of approximately 2,500 mm. The winters are mild and the summers hot. The resorts offer climate therapy and therapeutic sea bathing. The seawater is warm and has a fairly constant temperature and high mineral content. The gently sloping shores are covered with a layer of sand and gravel. The resorts provide therapy for respiratory ailments of nontubercular origin, functional illnesses of the nervous system, anemia, and cardiovascular diseases, including high blood pressure accompanied by poor blood circulation of no greater than the second degree. The health resorts are open all year and the swimming season is from May through October.