battery

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Battery, the

Battery, the, park, 21 acres (8.5 hectares), southern tip of Manhattan island, New York City; site of former Dutch and English fortifications. Castle Clinton, a fort built in 1808 for the defense of New York harbor, was ceded to the city in 1823 and renamed Castle Garden. It was remodeled and served as a noted amusement hall and opera house; Swedish soprano Jenny Lind made her U.S. debut on its stage in 1850. From 1855 to 1892 it served as the main immigration station for New York City, and from 1896 to 1941 it housed an aquarium.

After World War II the park was remodeled, and Castle Clinton became a national monument (see National Parks and Monuments, table). The park also contains a war memorial and a statue of Giovanni da Verrazzano, the first European to enter New York harbor. Boats to Liberty Island and Ellis Island leave from the park. New residential communities, such as Battery Park City, have developed in the area around the park.


battery

battery, in criminal and tort law, the unpermitted touching of any part of the person of another, or of anything worn, carried by, or intimately associated at that moment (as a chair being sat on) with another. Contact must be intended by the aggressor, must be reasonably considered offensive, and must be without consent by the one affected. (Consent is assumed for the ordinary and customary contacts of everyday life.) Gross negligence may provide the intent necessary to constitute a battery. Actual physical injuries need not be sustained by the victim; thus a doctor who performs an operation without consent can be sued for battery, even though the patient is benefited by the operation. The term “assault and battery” refers to a crime, the unlawful touching of another as the consummation of an assault.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2022, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Battery

 

(military), the basic artillery firing subunit. Batteries can be separate (regimental battery, coast artillery battery) or can be part of artillery battalions (regiments). The concept “battery” originally signified a large tactical unit containing a specific number of guns (for example, the French Army’s 100–gun battery at the Battle of Wagram in 1809). In Russia an organic firing unit was introduced in 1833 instead of a company. In modern armies a battery contains from two to three firing platoons, a headquarters platoon (squad), and from two to six guns (infantry mortars) or from four to six mounts. In combat all components of the battery are generally utilized. Batteries of regimental, antitank, and low caliber antiaircraft artillery can also be employed in platoons or by the piece. Subunits which undertake topographic, sound-ranging, and optical reconnaisance are also called batteries. There are also headquarters batteries, maintenance batteries, training batteries, and so on.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

battery

[′bad·ə·rē]
(chemical engineering)
A series of distillation columns or other processing equipment operated as a single unit.
(electricity)
A direct-current voltage source made up of one or more units that convert chemical, thermal, nuclear, or solar energy into electrical energy.
(ordnance)
A group of guns or other weapons, such as mortars, machine guns, artillery pieces, or of searchlights, set up under one tactical commander in a certain area.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

battery

1. A combination of two or more electric cells capable of storing and supplying direct current by electrochemical means.
2. Any group of two or more similar adjacent plumbing fixtures which discharge into a common horizontal waste or soil branch.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

battery

1. 
a. two or more primary cells connected together, usually in series, to provide a source of electric current
b. short for dry battery
2. another name for accumulator
3. Criminal law unlawful beating or wounding of a person or mere touching in a hostile or offensive manner
4. Chiefly Brit
a. a large group of cages for intensive rearing of poultry
b. (as modifier): battery hens
5. Psychol a series of tests
6. Chess two men of the same colour placed so that one can unmask an attack by the other by moving
7. the percussion section in an orchestra
8. Baseball the pitcher and the catcher considered together
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

battery

A storage device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. Used by the billions each year from tiny hearing aid batteries to units that some day may be 40 feet long (see illustration below), the battery is constructed of positive and negative metal electrodes. When the two electrodes are connected together by a circuit on the outside, a chemical reaction is created inside, and electrons flow from the negative electrode through an electrolyte to the positive electrode creating a voltage difference. The electrolyte material prevents the electrons from flowing until the circuit is completed on the outside.

The First Battery
Alessandro Volta invented the first battery in 1800 to sustain an electric current. His "voltaic pile" was a stack of cells, each containing a brine-soaked cloth sandwiched between zinc and copper discs. He got the idea from Luigi Galvani, who in the late 1700s generated current from two dissimilar metals joined together by a frog's muscle. Over time, there has been progress! See batteries and non-removable battery.


The Liquid Metal Battery
This battery technology uses molten metals and was invented for the U.S. electrical grid, but all batteries work the same. When the electrodes are connected to a load on the outside (light bulb, electronic circuit, electrical grid, etc.), electrons flow from the negative electrode to the positive electrode through the electrolyte. See liquid metal battery.
Copyright © 1981-2019 by The Computer Language Company Inc. All Rights reserved. THIS DEFINITION IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. All other reproduction is strictly prohibited without permission from the publisher.
References in periodicals archive ?
In a battery, the electric charge moves through the electrolyte.
Based on a fully charged battery, the Volt is said to be capable of running as a full electric vehicle from 40 to 45 miles.
Bearing in mind the reusability of the battery, the revolutionary design of the package makes the storage of these batteries more convenient after it has been opened.
Although that's less than half the minimum number of recharging cycles expected from a commercial battery, the new work shows that there's no fundamental barrier to designing rechargeable batteries with superoxidized iron, Licht says.
Another obstacle is the fact that the stronger the current is that's used to charge a battery, the greater the heat and pressure build-up within the battery.
Built into a battery pack, as opposed to a single battery, the Air Manager turns on when the battery is in use, forcing air through an air inlet tube to start the chemical reaction, and the fan/tube combination minimizes the diffusion of air into and out of the battery when stored or not in use.
* When starting with a 40 pound battery, the material that's left over after recycling weighs just a few ounces -- about as much as a car key.
Toshiba Battery plans to market an AA-size battery in next March under the name ''GigaEnergy'' for 240 yen, 1.5 times the price of an AA-size alkaline battery, the official said.
Although the car is now powered by a 13-kilowatt-hour lead-acid battery, the Ovonic battery that may replace it is rated to 25 kilowatt-hours.