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battery,in criminal and tort law, the unpermitted touching of any part of the person of another, or of anything worn, carried by, or intimately associated at that moment (as a chair being sat on) with another. Contact must be intended by the aggressor, must be reasonably considered offensive, and must be without consent by the one affected. (Consent is assumed for the ordinary and customary contacts of everyday life.) Gross negligence may provide the intent necessary to constitute a battery. Actual physical injuries need not be sustained by the victim; thus a doctor who performs an operation without consent can be sued for battery, even though the patient is benefited by the operation. The term "assault and battery" refers to a crime, the unlawful touching of another as the consummation of an assaultassault,
in law, an attempt or threat, going beyond mere words, to use violence, with the intent and the apparent ability to do harm to another. If violent contact actually occurs, the offense of battery has been committed; modern criminal statutes often combine assault and
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(military), the basic artillery firing subunit. Batteries can be separate (regimental battery, coast artillery battery) or can be part of artillery battalions (regiments). The concept “battery” originally signified a large tactical unit containing a specific number of guns (for example, the French Army’s 100–gun battery at the Battle of Wagram in 1809). In Russia an organic firing unit was introduced in 1833 instead of a company. In modern armies a battery contains from two to three firing platoons, a headquarters platoon (squad), and from two to six guns (infantry mortars) or from four to six mounts. In combat all components of the battery are generally utilized. Batteries of regimental, antitank, and low caliber antiaircraft artillery can also be employed in platoons or by the piece. Subunits which undertake topographic, sound-ranging, and optical reconnaisance are also called batteries. There are also headquarters batteries, maintenance batteries, training batteries, and so on.
batteryA storage device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. Used by the billions each year from tiny hearing aid batteries to units that some day may be 40 feet long (see illustration below), the battery is constructed of positive and negative metal electrodes. When the two electrodes are connected together by a circuit on the outside, a chemical reaction is created inside, and electrons flow from the negative electrode through an electrolyte to the positive electrode creating a voltage difference. The electrolyte material prevents the electrons from flowing until the circuit is completed on the outside.
The First Battery
Alessandro Volta invented the first battery in 1800 to sustain an electric current. His "voltaic pile" was a stack of cells, each containing a brine-soaked cloth sandwiched between zinc and copper discs. He got the idea from Luigi Galvani, who in the late 1700s generated current from two dissimilar metals joined together by a frog's muscle. Over time, there has been progress! See batteries.
|The Liquid Metal Battery|
|This battery technology uses molten metals and was invented for the U.S. electrical grid, but all batteries work the same. When the electrodes are connected to a load on the outside (light bulb, electronic circuit, electrical grid, etc.), electrons flow from the negative electrode to the positive electrode through the electrolyte. See liquid metal battery.|