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(also Sain-khan). Born 1208; died 1255. Mongol khan, son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan. After the death of his father (1227), Batu became the head of Jochi’s ulus (Tatar realm).

Having conquered Desht-i-Kipchak (the Polovtsy steppe) in 1236, he led a campaign into Eastern Europe (1237—43), which was accompanied by a mass extermination of the population and by the destruction of cities. As a result of the heroic resistance of the Russian people, who courageously defended Riazan’, Moscow, Vladimir, Kozel’sk, Kiev, and other cities from the invaders, the armies of Batu suffered great losses. At the end of 1240 the Mongol Tatars, already exhausted by the struggle with Rus’, invaded the territories of the ancient states of Eastern Europe (Poland, Bohemia, Hungary, and Dalmatia). Having encountered resistance from the peoples of these countries and being unwilling to risk leaving the conquered Russian lands at his rear, Batu had to begin a hurried retreat to the East in the spring of 1242. The death of the Mongol great khan Ogadai (December 1241) compelled Batu to return to Jochi’s ulus and consolidate his position. In 1243 he founded a feudal state, the Golden Horde, in the lower Volga region. Its capital city was called Sarai-batu, and it extended from the Irtysh River to the Danube. Batu participated in an upheaval within the Mongol empire (1251), and with his support Mangu became the great khan of the empire.


Grekov, B. D., and A. Iu. Iakubovskii. Zolotaia Orda i ee padenie. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950.
Safargaliev, M. G. Raspad Zolotoi Ordy. Saransk, 1960.


References in periodicals archive ?
2% interest in Batu Hijau in late 2016 from Newmont and Sumitomo.
Butata bwa pili bo neni fumani neli bwa batu bene ba hupula kuli ni bulele Silozi kapa Sisubia kwamusebezi, kona kuli na nenisa koni kuikambota mwalipuo zeo kakuli mubulelelo waka mwalipuo zeo kaufela wasehisa, nikuli hape na ni ikutwa kuli mukwa wo hauna mayemo amande mwalibaka za musebezi.
uk) has a seven-night B&B stay at the 4* Hard Rock Hotel Penang, Batu Ferringhi, from PS799pp, February 27, ex-Heathtrow.
Beach lovers would enjoy the white sandy beaches of Batu Ferringhi.
Yayasan Lesung Batu has established The Kaltim Centre for Language and Culture (KCLC) in Kalimantan Timur, because the cultural and linguistic complexity of this central part of Indonesia is still grossly underrepresented in literature.
20 September 2011 - Swedish Lundin Petroleum AB (STO:LUPE) said today it had completed the drilling of the Batu Hitam-1 exploration well in block PM308A, off the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia, its third well in the country.
International Resource News-September 20, 2011--Lundin Petroleum AB completes drilling at Batu Hitam exploration well(C)1994-2011 ENPublishing - http://www.
Robust Resources Limited (ASX:ROL) reported significant progress on the delineation of the Batu Mas and Batu Hitam discoveries on Romang Island, Indonesia.
Several of the affected areas, comprising Ensurai, Merbong, Bua, Pukong, Sg Menuang, Batu Ansus and Merio Nanga, were located near the banks of the Batang Lupar which was swollen due to the high rainfall, she said when contacted by Bernama.
The geophysics and drilling has confirmed a well-defined geophysical (resistivity) anomaly area that is 20-times larger than current Batu Mas drilled prospect and remains open.
Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference (16th: 2009: Batu Ferringhi, Malaysia) Ed.
Mgaloblishvili said David Kezerashvili would be replaced as defence minister by his deputy Batu Kutelia.