Bay of Pigs Invasion

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Bay of Pigs Invasion,

1961, an unsuccessful invasion of Cuba by Cuban exiles, supported by the U.S. government. On Apr. 17, 1961, an armed force of about 1,500 Cuban exiles landed in the Bahía de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs) on the south coast of Cuba. Trained since May, 1960, in Guatemala by members of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with the approval of the Eisenhower administration, and supplied with arms by the U.S. government, the rebels intended to foment an insurrection in Cuba and overthrow the Communist regime of Fidel Castro. The Cuban army easily defeated the rebels and by Apr. 20, most were either killed or captured. The invasion provoked anti-U.S. demonstrations in Latin America and Europe and further embittered U.S.-Cuban relations. Poorly planned and executed, the invasion subjected President Kennedy to severe criticism at home. Cuban exile leader José Miró Cardona, president of the U.S.-based National Revolutionary Council, blamed the failure on the CIA and the refusal of Kennedy to authorize air cover for the invasion force, but perhaps more crucial was the fact that the uprising the exiles hoped and needed to spark did not happened. Much later it was revealed that the CIA task force planning the invasion had predicted that the invasion's goals unachievable without U.S. military involvement; it is unclear whether Kennedy or CIA chief Allen Dulles knew of the assessment. In Dec., 1962, Castro released 1,113 captured rebels in exchange for $53 million in food and medicine raised by private donations in the United States.

Bibliography

See K. E. Meyer and T. Szulc, The Cuban Invasion (1962); H. B. Johnson, The Bay of Pigs (1964).

References in periodicals archive ?
The Kennedy administration stumbled badly when it tried to destabilize Fidel Castro's communist regime in Cuba -- an effort that culminated in the Bay of Pigs fiasco.
Allan Dulles was fired by President Kennedy after the Bay of Pigs fiasco.
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Using a systems perspective, they review about 75 successful and failed government undertakings in the US and abroad to show the steps it takes to successfully bring a large, important public initiative from an idea to results, including lessons learned from policy initiatives, reform, regulation, capital projects, creating new institutions, process and IT initiatives improvement, peacekeeping and defense, and disaster and crisis response like the Challenger and Columbia tragedies, California's electricity reform, immigration reform, the wars on poverty and inflation, wars in Iraq and Vietnam, the Bay of Pigs fiasco, Hurricane Katrina, 9/11, and the Marshall Plan, and patterns and characteristics of success.
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