Baybars I


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Baybars I

(bī`bärs), 1223–77, Mamluk sultan (1260–77) of Egypt and Syria. Once a Turkish slave, Baybars became a commander of the Ayyubid and then MamlukMamluk
or Mameluke
[Arab.,=slaves], a warrior caste dominant in Egypt and influential in the Middle East for over 700 years. Islamic rulers created this warrior caste by collecting non-Muslim slave boys and training them as cavalry soldiers especially loyal to their
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 armies. In 1260 he led Mamluk troops to victory against the MongolsMongols
, Asian people, numbering about 6 million and distributed mainly in the Republic of Mongolia, the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of China, and Kalmykia and the Buryat Republic of Russia.
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 at the Battle of Ayn Jalut. When reporting to the sultan, Baybars killed him with a sword and became the fourth Mamluk sultan. His reign was marked by continuous military campaigns against Persian Mongols and Christian crusaders. He died in Damascus by mistakenly drinking poison.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Sadeque, Baybars I of Egypt (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1956), 13-14.
This title appears on his coins (and inscriptions, which are not cited in this context by Heidemann) only after al-Mustansir officially invested Baybars as sultan.(4) During the public ceremony, Baybars is clearly the central figure, while al-Mustansir - the ostensible grantor of the rank of sultan - is but a mute participant playing a secondary role.
The journey takes six months and, having arrived in England, Baybars is entertained for a year by the island's twelve petty kings, before being presented at the court of the high king.