beam steering

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beam steering

[′bēm ‚stir·iŋ]
(electronics)
Changing the direction of the major lobe of a radiation pattern, usually by switching antenna elements.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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Consider beam steer 1 when switch A is ON while the others are OFF; beam steer 2, switch B is ON while others are OFF; beam steer 3 when switch C is ON while others are OFF and beam steer 4 when switch D is ON while others are OFF.
For instance, Figure 11(a) shows the beam steer 1 with a gain of 2.81 dBi, which indicates a signal strength between -30 dBm to -48 dBm from point 1 to point 10 at angle of 0[degrees] angle.
For the beam steer 2, the NLOS measurement at +15 degrees yields the best result.
On the other hand, Figure 11(c) shows that the measurement at 0[degrees] records better signal reception than the measurements of other angles, because the main beam is almost steered to 0 degrees where the measurement yields that the main beam direction for beam steer 3 is at -1 degree.
To the authors' knowledge, none of the beam steering antennas achieved maximum beam at all beam steered direction [12-15].
The maximum gain for the radian pattern steered to -x-axis and +x-axis is 8.2 dBi, while the peak gain for the main beam steered at 0[degrees] is 7 dBi.
Such methods are also used in cell-site diversity application [22] where the main beam steered towards a desired direction while suppressing the signals from the unwanted directions.
As can be seen from Figure 17, a beam steers well in the elevation plane.
However the present article has successfully implemented the design structure of dual band TM beam steered array using DE.
The beam steered polar radiation patterns (E plane) at the centre frequencies without considering SLL constraints are shown in Figures 10 and 11.
Note that as the array scans electronically, the cross-polarization pattern also varies, and a cross-polarization peak appears in a similar direction as the main beam steers off-broadside.