The friction resistance of bed joint
area was not fully utilised, which causes stress concentration at localised areas as observed in Figure 7.
The masonry units absorb water from the mortar after the mortar bed joint
Pointing is the outer face of the mortar bed joint
and it is this bed that spreads the loads imposed on wall across the bricks or stones.
The cracks propagated diagonally across the mortar joint and also horizontally along the bed joint
to form sliding shear.
The main dilatancy characteristics are captured well including the dependence on the confining pressure and the uplift during the shearing which increases exponentially and is arrested at large shear deformation, indicating a smoothening effect on the bed joint
The decisive finding is the interaction of the bridge vault with the breast walls--a critical point being the bed joint
between the vault and the breast wall.
Eighteen-year-old Rory McIlroy, from Holywood in Northern Ireland, has never even played a major before, but with a 68 he went to bed joint
third with current US Open champion Angel Cabrera, former US Open champion Michael Campbell, American Tour winner Boo Weekley and European Tour winner Markus Brier, of Austria.
Water that penetrates the face brick follows the collar joint down to flashing where it is either expelled through the bed joint
and/or at weeps, or it dissipates through the face of the wall.
The next step is to join the vertical joints and also the bed joint
. Use the large end of your 5/8" x 3/4" jointer and compress all of the mortar joints by pushing and pulling down for the verticals and pushing and pulling across for the horizontal bed joint
Facing breast walls are locally degraded by cracks running along the heel bed joint
between the arch and the wall, and by cracks in the bed joint
at a level of the mortar bed and the protective concrete layer below the granite paving (in arch XIII a horizontal shift in the joint is evident as well, while in the area of degraded bed joints
deposits of washed out salts can be seen, Fig 14).
without mortar in bed joints
. In such case, it is typical for a contact of masonry units in the bed joint
to locally develop stress concentration due to roughness of the surface.
include rebuilding the bulging ashlar on the north elevation, all in larger scale masonry blocks -replacement of the smaller blade stones to larger scale masonry blocks -mechanical ties in bed joints
and a network of sock-type anchors into the core -pressure grouting to voids between ashlar and core; reduction of water conduits in the core -repointing, including pressure pointing -structural repairs to the staircase -rebuild