However, from a critical perspective a behaviouralist
focus on compliance and effectiveness misses the crucial question, namely 'what is there to comply with in the first place, what, or the many possibilities, is the preferable meaning of the rule, and should the rule be applied, or the exception?'.
(86) Many of the findings of behavioural studies are based on experiments with students, as a result of which Posner argues that the empirical evidence for the claim of the behaviouralists
is weaker than is often held.
'Although the complete behaviouralist
may deny the existence of value-judgments and normative understandings, nevertheless he does not escape, in his researches, the influence of his own value-judgments'.
The second was essentially defined by the polemic engagement of Hedley Bull, probably the most prominent among the English School scholars, in the debate between traditionalists and behaviouralists
. Regarding pluralism, critics have often dismissed the approach of the English School as non-scientific and they have charged it with inconclusiveness and vagueness.
These are best grouped in and subsumed under three holistic theories, perspectives or schools, namely dependency/underdevelopment or structuralism, the Marxist historicist and class conflict approach, and behaviouralist
theories later equated with conflict management.
Informed by assumptions in behaviouralist
psychology, research on resilience tends to focus on the conditions that enable the development of coping strategies.
mass appraisal) possess a remarkably powerful arsenal of methods and techniques--with a varying degree of reliance on computerization as well as 'behaviouralist
' and 'rationalist' assumptions.
American political science was heavily influenced by the behaviouralist
revolution of the 1950s and it has become a dominant feature of the discipline there.
The second view we refer to as the behaviouralist
perspective, a framework that focuses on the human costs of work processes in call centres (Taylor and Bain, 1999).
For example, an observed association between price movements and the occurrence of an economically-neutral event known to have strong psychological effects is, on the face of it, consistent with the behaviouralist