The term "Baba" (Father) means the greatest religious leader among Bektashis
. Bektashism, which is considered to be the root of the understanding of Ahi Order, is the love of God, Muhammed, Ali and Ehlibeyt (prophet's family), based on the Qur'anic identity of Islamic religion, which is based on Pir Haci Bektas Veli from the Khorasan in the beginning of the 13th century.
Especially in the last decade, Turkey has also started to discuss diverse Islamic sects, such as the question of Alevis and Bektashis
, in workshops organized by the government, various institutions, and think-tanks.
I have tried to ensure that the Iraqi Alevis and Bektashis
attend these festivals, as I consider them a natural part of Turkey; but my efforts have not worked.
At first, the religious reforms targeted Sufis, "especially Bektashis
, Halvetis, and Mevlevis, the three orders that historically had had close ties with the military and the dynasty" (p.
Ali Balkiz, chairman of the Federation of Alevis and Bektashis
, said that they would support the new leftist formation.
Moosa describes versions of the Shabak, the Bektashis
, the Ahl-i Haqq (or Ali Ilahis) (Moosa 1988: 115-119), the Ibrahimiyya (166).
Here was a swarm of Bektashis
now, heading his way; their wandering troupes had vastly increased in number over the last few years--they, and the companies following the ayans and derebeys, the warlords beginning to take advantage of Osmanli generosity by seizing control of timars held by weak sipahis who no longer had the courage and strength to protect their lands.
The Orthodox Church and the Bektashis
operated strictly religious educational centers for the training of clerics.
Being receptive to many elements of these religions, the Bektashis
also incorporated anthropomorphic and cabbalistic doctrines of letter and number symbolism that can be traced to Hurufism, (5) combined with Jan extremist Shiite credo that linked devotion to the divinity of Ali with beliefs in anthropomorphism, the manifestation of God in human form, reincarnation, and metempsychosis.
In fact present-day reincarnationism among the Alevis and the Bektashis
is an incomplete syncretism.
(9) The most comprehensive work on the Bektasis is still Birge; see also Popovic/Veinstein; a concise account is given in Dressler ("Bektashis
Irene Melikoff's attempt at synthesis, and the two conference volumes, follow on the heels of three collections of papers published by Editions Isis in Istanbul, two consisting of Melikoff's own scattered articles: Sur les traces du soufisme turc: Recherches sur l'Islam populaire en Anatolie (1992); De l'epopee au mythe: Itineraire turcologique (1995), and one consisting of papers presented at a conference on the Bektashis
held at Strasbourg on 29 June--2 July 1986: Bektachiyya: Etudes sur l'ordre mystique des Bektachis et les groupes relevant de Hadji Bektach, ed.