During mid-June, a stationary wave-three atmospheric pattern began to develop (Section 6b), with broad low-pressure centers to the north of the Bellingshausen Sea (~80[degrees]W), East Antarctica (~140[degrees]E), and Dronning Maud Land (~40[degrees]E) that broadly correspond to the SIE anomalies (Fig.
Through May and into early June, SIE continued to be above average across much of East Antarctica but below average in the western Ross, Amundsen, and Bellingshausen Seas and across the eastern Weddell Sea and Indian Ocean sectors (~10[degrees]W-80[degrees]E).
5; this flight originated in Punta Arenas, flew to the Bellingshausen Sea
marginal ice zone, and then profiled northward along 90[degrees]W.
6.3f), with anomalies over the Antarctic Peninsula, Bellingshausen Sea, and eastern Amundsen Sea more than 2.5 standard deviations below the climatological average.
A positive anomaly then appeared in the Bellingshausen Sea and strengthened in later months of 2015 (Figs.
The ASL is the climatological area of low pressure located in the South Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean (SO), which comprises the Ross Sea, the Amundsen Sea, and the Bellingshausen Sea
, over the latitude band 60[degrees]-70[degrees]S.
The large negative anomaly center in 2013 over the Drake Passage and the Bellingshausen Sea
(between 45[degrees] and 120[degrees]W) is weaker and shifted to the Amundsen and Ross Seas in 2014.
However, the magnitudes of anomalies are increased but the extents were smaller compared to 2012, especially the negative anomalies over the Bellingshausen Sea
(between 60[degrees] and 110[degrees]W).
The cooling trends, in contrast, are small and spatially limited, confined to the North Atlantic near Greenland and the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas
off the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.
In West Antarctica, ice shelves are being eaten away by warm ocean water, and those in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen seas
have thinned by as much as 18 percent since the early 1990s.
Satellite observations show that several ice shelves on the Amundsen and Bellingshausen seas
thinned between 2003 and 2008.