Diuretics

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Diuretics

 

agents that increase the excretion of urine and decrease the amount of fluid in the tissues and serous cavities. Natriuretics increase the excretion of sodium ions. Diuretics are used primarily to treat edema accompanying cardiovascular, liver, and kidney diseases. Depending on their effect, they are classified as renal diuretics, which act directly on the kidneys and have the most pronounced effect, and extrarenal diuretics, which act indirectly through other systems in the body.

Renal diuretics act by blocking the kidney enzymes responsible for the transport of electrolytes, as well as by inhibiting reabsorption in the terminal tubules, which intensifies the excretion of sodium, chlorine, and potassium ions. Among the renal diuretics are the mercury compounds Mercusal and Novurit and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as Diacarb and dichlorphenamide (Daranid)—sulfonamide derivatives that intensify the excretion of bicarbonate, causing a drop in the alkaline reserve in the blood and, in some cases, acidosis. Benzothiadizine and sulfamoylanthranilic and dichlorophenoxyacetic acid derivatives such as dichlothiazide (Hypothiazide), furosemide (Lasix), and ethacrynic acid (Uregit) are extremely potent diuretics that sharply increase the excretion of sodium and have a hypotensive effect. Pyrimidine and pteridine derivatives, such as Allacyl and triamterene (pterofen), inhibit tubular reabsorption of sodium and chlorine ions but do not affect the excretion of potassium. Aldosterone antagonists, including spironolactone (Aldactone and Verospiron), increase the excretion of sodium and decrease the excretion of potassium and urea.

Depending on how they act, extrarenal diuretics are classified as osmotic and other types of agents. Among the osmotic agents are potassium acetate, mannitol, and urea, which are excreted by the kidneys and absorb water. They cause the excretion of sodium and chlorine in proportion to the increase in volume of urine and are used to lower intracranial pressure and reduce cerebral edema. Acid-forming diuretics include ammonium chloride and potassium chloride, which act by the transformation of cations. The ammonium ion is transformed into urea in the liver, the calcium ion settles in the intestine in the form of phosphate or carbonate, and chlorine ions occur in excess in the blood plasma and are excreted by the kidneys with sodium.

Extracts and tinctures are sometimes prepared for use as diuretics from bearberry leaf (tincture or decoction), field horsetail (decoction or fluid extract), and Orthosiphon leaf (tincture).

References in periodicals archive ?
50) If they cannot tolerate a CCB, or for those with HF (or at high risk of HF), the guidelines recommend beginning therapy with a diuretic (preferably chlorthalidone or indapamide unless the patient's hypertension is already controlled with bendroflumethiazide or HCTZ).
Efficacy and safety of 24 weeks of therapy with bendroflumethiazide 1.
ASCOT (the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial) randomized nearly 20,000 hypertensive subjects with three additional cardiovascular risk factors to antihypertensive therapy with a calcium channel blocker based regimen using amlodipine, with the ACE inhibitor perindopril added as needed, or to a beta-blocker-based therapy featuring atenolol with or without the diuretic bendroflumethiazide.
ASCOT (the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial) randomized nearly 20,000 hypertensive subjects with three additional cardiovascular risk factors to antihypertensive therapy with a calcium channel blocker-based regimen using amlodipine, with the ACE inhibitor perindopril added as needed, or to a beta-blocker-based therapy featuring atenolol with or without the diuretic bendroflumethiazide.
Certain medications such as aspirin and bendroflumethiazide (a type of water tablet) can make you more susceptible to gout.
The drugs were atenolol, bendroflumethiazide, captopril, and amlodipine.
Patients were treated with either amlodipine, adding perindopril when needed to reach the blood pressure target, or with atenolol (Tenormin), adding bendroflumethiazide and potassium when needed to reach the goal pressure.
Coyle now finds himself the focus of another disciplinary inquiry as analysis of the urine sample he provided after riding at Market Rasen on July 4 tested positive for the diuretic bendroflumethiazide.
clonidine (Catapres) terazosin (Hytrin) Diuretics: Cause water loss, which Thiazide Diuretics: reduces workload on the bendroflumethiazide (Naturetin) heart.
He was taking bendroflumethiazide, propranolol, atorvastatin and aspirin.
5 Nadolol + Corzide 40/5; 80/5 bendroflumethiazide Propanolol + HCTZ Inderide 40/25; 80/25 Calcium Channel Blocker + ACEI Amlodipine/benazepril Lotrel 2.