Benedict, Saint

Benedict, Saint

(bĕn`ədĭkt), d. c.547, Italian monk, called Benedict of Nursia, author of a rule for monks that became the basis of the Benedictine order, b. Norcia (E of Spoleto). He went to Rome to study, then withdrew to Subiaco to live as a hermit; after three years he was renowned for his holiness. He founded a community of monks made up of cells of 13 monks each. This he eventually left, and at Monte CassinoMonte Cassino
, monastery, in Latium, central Italy, E of the Rapido River. Situated on a hill (1,674 ft/510 m) overlooking Cassino, it was founded c.529 by St. Benedict of Nursia, whose rule became that of all Benedictine houses in the world.
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, in an old pagan holy place, he started the first truly Benedictine monastery, although the benedictinebenedictine
, sweet liqueur originated in 1510 by Benedictine monks at Fécamp, France, and now manufactured by a secular concern on the grounds of the old abbey. Every bottle bears the initials of the Latin dedication Deo Optimo Maximo
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 order did not come into being until Carolingian times. The fruits of Benedict's experience appear in the Rule of St. Benedict (in Latin), which became the chief rule in Western monasticismmonasticism
, form of religious life, usually conducted in a community under a common rule. Monastic life is bound by ascetical practices expressed typically in the vows of celibacy, poverty, and obedience, called the evangelical counsels.
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 under the Carolingians. The CisterciansCistercians
, monks of a Roman Catholic religious order founded (1098) by St. Robert, abbot of Molesme, in Cîteaux [Cistercium], Côte-d'Or dept., France. They reacted against Cluniac departures from the Rule of St. Benedict.
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 also follow the Rule of Saint Benedict. The Rule's 73 chapters are full of a spirit of moderation and common sense. They set forth the central ideas of Benedictine monasticism. St. Benedict's sister, St. Scholastica, also was a religious. Feast: Mar. 21.

Bibliography

See St. Gregory I, Life and Miracles of St. Benedict (tr. by O. J. Zimmerman and B. R. Avery, 1969); The Rule of Saint Benedict (tr. by A. C. Meisel and M. L. del Mastro, 1975); D. Knowles, Great Historical Enterprises (1963); O. Chadwick, The Making of the Benedictine Ideal (1981).

References in periodicals archive ?
4 /PRNewswire/ -- For 16 students from the College of Saint Benedict, Saint John's University and Southwest University (SWU) in Beibei, Chongqing, China, summer's usual pastimes -- working to pay for school, camping and baseball -- have been augmented by test tubes, beakers and microscopes.
46) Maynard also wrote biographies of Saint Philip Neri, Saint Francis Assisi, Mother Frances Schervier, Mother Theresa Demjanovich, Fray Junipero Serra, Saint Benedict, Saint Ignatius Loyola, and the English Reformation figures previously mentioned.