Benedictines


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Related to Benedictines: Carmelites, Cistercians, Franciscans, Dominicans

Benedictines,

religious order of the Roman Catholic Church, following the rule of St. BenedictBenedict, Saint
, d. c.547, Italian monk, called Benedict of Nursia, author of a rule for monks that became the basis of the Benedictine order, b. Norcia (E of Spoleto).
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 [Lat. abbr.,=O.S.B.]. The first Benedictine monastery was at Monte CassinoMonte Cassino
, monastery, in Latium, central Italy, E of the Rapido River. Situated on a hill (1,674 ft/510 m) overlooking Cassino, it was founded c.529 by St. Benedict of Nursia, whose rule became that of all Benedictine houses in the world.
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, Italy, which came to be regarded as the symbolic center of Western monasticismmonasticism
, form of religious life, usually conducted in a community under a common rule. Monastic life is bound by ascetical practices expressed typically in the vows of celibacy, poverty, and obedience, called the evangelical counsels.
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. St. Benedict's rule was in many ways novel in monastic life in replacing severity with moderation. The monastery, or abbeyabbey,
monastic house, especially among Benedictines and Cistercians, consisting of not less than 12 monks or nuns ruled by an abbot or abbess. Many abbeys were originally self-supporting. In the Benedictine expansion after the 8th cent.
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, was conceived as a devout Christian family, with an abbot or abbess as head. The monks or nuns swore to live in the house until death. The whole of Benedictine life was experienced in common, the waking hours being devoted principally to worship and work, especially manual labor. In the 8th cent. the English Benedictines St. Willibrord and St. Boniface evangelized Frisia and Germany; in this expansion of Christendom the abbey served as an outpost, a unit of both Latin culture (including Western agricultural methods) and Christian religion. The Benedictines were also active in continental Western Europe—their preservation of books was a critical service. At a series of councils held under Louis I at Aachen (A.D. 816–A.D. 819), Benedict of AnianeBenedict of Aniane, Saint,
c.750–821, French abbot who became a monastic adviser to Louis I. He first founded (c.780) an austere monastic community at Aniane in Languedoc, based on Eastern asceticism.
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 attempted to standardize monastic practices in the Carolingian Empire according to the Rule of St. Benedict. In the 10th cent. a reform began at the Benedictine abbey of Cluny, France, that resulted in the development of the Cluniac orderCluniac order
, medieval organization of Benedictines centered at the abbey of Cluny, France. Founded in 910 by the monk Berno and Count William of Aquitaine, the abbey's constitution provided it freedom from lay supervision and (after 1016) from jurisdiction of the local bishop.
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; at Cluny the liturgy was significantly expanded. Another reform, begun in 1098, resulted in the foundation of the order of the CisterciansCistercians
, monks of a Roman Catholic religious order founded (1098) by St. Robert, abbot of Molesme, in Cîteaux [Cistercium], Côte-d'Or dept., France. They reacted against Cluniac departures from the Rule of St. Benedict.
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. Throughout the centuries Benedictine houses have occupied a central position in Western monasticism. Today they are organized as a loose federation of congregations, each congregation being a collection of geographically related abbeys or monasteries that are mainly autonomous. Benedictine work in liturgy has been outstanding. The abbeys at Solesmes and Beuron in particular have established a spiritual life centered around sung liturgy. They are responsible for the restoration of Gregorian melodies (plain chant) and their universal use today in the Roman Catholic Church. Permanent Benedictine establishments in the United States began in the 1840s. Benedictine nuns, originally founded by St. Benedict and his sister Scholastica as an enclosed order, now often do missionary and educational work in communities.

Bibliography

See E. C. Butler, Benedictine Monachism (2d ed. 1924, repr. 1962); C. H. Lawrence, Medieval Monasticism (1984).

Benedictines

(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

Benedict of Nursia was a devout Roman Catholic who lived from 480 to 550 CE. Although he was not an ordained priest, those who follow his Benedictine Rule today generally study for the priesthood.

Benedictines are a contemplative order of monks and nuns, usually living communally and reaching for a deeper relationship with God through prayer, meditation, and community service as part of the Roman Catholic Church.

Benedictines

 

oldest Western European Catholic monastic order. Founded circa 530 by Benedict of Nursia at Monte Cassino (Italy); there is also a women’s branch, the Benedictine Nuns.

During the Middle Ages the Benedictine Order owned large amounts of land, and it supported the papacy in its claims for domination throughout Europe. The order attained its greatest influence in the Catholic Church during the tenth and 11th centuries. With the rise of other monastic orders the influence of the Benedictines decreased. During the period of the Great French Revolution the order went into a decline, but in the 19th century its activity revived somewhat. As of 1968, the main Benedictine Order numbered approximately 12,000 monks, belonging to about 20 men’s congregations; there were also 16 women’s congregations (numbering about 20,000 members). The order is headed by an abbot primate, who lives in Rome and is elected every 12 years. The Benedictines are a bulwark of support for the present-day Vatican.

References in periodicals archive ?
However the site, including the churchyard, remains the property of the Benedictine Order, based at Ampleforth Abbey in Yorkshire.
What happens here is a kind of seedbed for inner renewal, and we share the fruits of that with people who come," explained Brennan, who was an archdiocesan priest for 20 years before receiving permission to join the Benedictines 19 years ago.
German Benedictines established major historical-critical projects (inspired by the French Maurists), participated in learned societies, contributed to (and in some cases founded) academic journals, conducted scientific experiments, expressed disdain for Scholasticism and enthusiasm for the ideas of Locke, Wolff, and Kant, and embarked on theological experiments in ecumenism (Beda Mayr) and religious toleration (Benedict Werkmeister).
The Benedictine community at the Abbey has just 14 nuns.
The latter was commissioned by the Benedictine monastery of Anchin, not far from Flines, between 1500 and 1505.
They will attend next Sunday's Vatican ceremonies when Dublin-born monk Dom Columba Marmion becomes the first member of the Irish Benedictine Order to be beatified.
When the abbey was adopted by the Benedictines in the late nineteenth century, a transept was added for liturgical reasons.
In March 1914, the Benedictines abandoned the Canadian project and eventually returned to Ampleforth.
Father Paul Schwietz, a Benedictine monk and land manager of St.
Sister Joan Chittister is a member, and former prioress, of Mount Saint Benedict priory in Erie, Pennsylvania; she's also a former president of the American Benedictine priories.