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Bengaluru (bĕng-gäˌlo͞oro͞oˈ), formerly Bangalore (băng-gəlôrˈ), city (2021 pop. 5,104,047; est. pop. metropolitan area 12,327,000), capital of Karnataka state, S central India, 3,000 ft (914 m) above sea level. A major industrial and transportation area of S India, Bengaluru is the economically vibrant center of India's high-technology sector, including computer, biotechnology, and aircraft industries as well as international telecommunications services. The city is also an important Indian design center, and the Indian Space Research Organization has its headquarters there. Well-planned, with numerous parks and wide streets, Bengaluru is a famous retirement place because of its mild climate.
It was founded in 1537, taken by Haidar Ali (c.1760), but restored to the original rulers of Bengaluru after the British defeated Tippoo Sahib, the son of Haidar Ali, at Shrirangapatna in 1799. As Bangalore it was British India's military and civil administrative station from 1831 to 1881. The remains of the palace of Tippoo Sahib and several institutes of learning, notably the Indian Institute of Science, are outstanding landmarks. The city was renamed from Bangalore, the anglicized version of the local name, to Bengaluru (sometimes spelled Bengalooru) in 2006, but the central government did not approve the change until 2014.