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a single-shot rifle that served as armament in the Russian Army in the 1870–90’s (caliber, 10.67 mm; weight with bayonet, 4.9 kg; range of fire, up to 4,000 ft). It was designed by the American colonel H. Berdan, but was subsequently considerably improved by the Russian military engineers A. P. Gorlov and K. I. Gunius, after which it received the name “Russian rifle” in the USA. In 1868 it was adopted as armament in the Russian Army with the name Berdan small-caliber infantry rifle no. 1. After the substitution of the turning bolt for the swinging bolt it became known as Berdan rifle no. 2. In the 1890’s the Berdan rifles were gradually replaced by an 1890 model (S. I. Mosin).