Berezina


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Berezina

(byĕrāzēnä`), river, c.380 mi (610 km) long, rising in Belarus. It flows generally S past Borisov and Bobruysk into the Dnieper River. It is navigable for most of its length. The heroic retreat across the Berezina of the remnants of Napoleon's Grand Army took place near Borisov from Nov. 26 to Nov. 29, 1812. The crossing—effected under heavy Russian attack—saved Napoleon and his forces from capture, but lost the lives of more than 20,000 men.

Berezina

 

a river in the Byelorussian SSR. Right tributary of the Dnieper. Length, 613 km; area of basin, 24,500 sq km. It has its origin north of the Minsk elevation. It runs through the Central Berezina Plain. The shores of the Berezina are low-lying in the upper reaches and frequently swampy; the right bank is elevated south of the city of Borisov. Its main tributaries are the Bobr, Kleva, Ol’sa, and Ola on the left and the Gaina and Svisloch’ on the right. The average annual discharge (into the estuary) is 145 cubic meters per second. It is navigable from its mouth to its confluence with the Serguch River (a distance of 505 km). Along with its tributary, the Serguch, which flows into it north of Borisov, the Berezina is part of the Berezina water system, which joins the basins of the Dnieper and the Zapadnaia Dvina. The cities of Borisov and Bobruisk are situated on the Berezina.

The Berezina, which runs from north to south in the western part of Russia, has been an important strategic border and has played an important role in Russia’s wars of the 18th through 20th centuries against Sweden, France, and Germany. The crossing of the Berezina by Napoleon’s retreating army during November 14–17 (26–29) during the Patriotic War of 1812 is best known. After the battle near Krasnoe, the French Army faced the threat of encirclement: the main Russian forces, led by M. I. Kutuzov, pursued in a parallel march south of the Moscow road; P. G. Vitgenshtein’s corps enveloped the French from the north; and the army of P. V. Chichagov barred retreat to the west. By November 10, Chichagov’s army was concentrated at Berezina between Zembin and Usha. Napoleon decided to break through toward Vil’no, crossing at the village of Studenka (above Borisov). The French forces numbered 75,000 to 80,000 men and the Russian army, about 100,000. On November 11 the forces of C. Oudinot occupied Borisov. In the belief that Napoleon was preparing to force a crossing of the Berezina south of Borisov in order to break through toward Minsk, Chichagov sent his main forces there on November 13. On November 14, Napoleon began the crossing at Studenka. Vitgenshtein acted indecisively and missed the opportunity to detain the enemy until the approach of the main force and Chichagov’s army. On November 16, Vitgenshtein’s troops entered into battle against Victor’s corps; at the same time, Chichagov’s forces initiated battles with Oudinot’s corps. The gross miscalculations of Chichagov and Vitgenshtein and the difficulty of establishing communications between the armies prevented the encirclement and annihilation of the French forces. Nonetheless, the French were overtaken by catastrophe at the Berezina. The excessive accumulation of men and carts in a narrow area, general demoralization, and bloody battles caused the French to lose about 50,000 men (killed, drowned, or taken prisoner) and to lose much of their artillery and carts. In effect, the Grande Armée ceased to exist.

In the summer of 1920 during the Soviet-Polish war, Soviet troops carried out two offensive operations on the Berezina.

During the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45 stubborn fighting was carried out in the region of the Berezina in the course of the Border Battles of 1941 and the Byelorussian Operation of 1944.

Berezina

a river in Belarus, rising in the north and flowing south to the River Dnieper: linked with the River Dvina and the Baltic Sea by the Berezina Canal. Length: 563 km (350 miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
He rode a 222-1 four-timer at Redcar - Berezina (5-1), Dominaite (9-4), Stallone (10-11) and 5-1 chance Majestic Bay
1, 184 kilometers of pipe from the Russian border in Smolensk region to the Berezina River near Borisov, Minsk region, was welded and laid.
29, what was left of the army escaped from their Russian pursuers and managed to cross the Berezina River.
The selfless heroism of engineers wading into the icy River Berezina to repair a pontoon bridge, knowing they would die from hypothermia, is detailed along with the callousness of officers ordering young troopers out of their lodgings to their inevitable death in the cold.
The daughter of Formidable shaped as if ready for the step up to this trip of seven furlongs when a staying-on third to Berezina over six at Redcar last time.
CeMais quand la Berezina est generale ou resulte d'un plan bricole, c'est le maEtre d'oeuvre, le patron, le directeur ou le coach qui, le premier, doit montrer des epaules fermes et bien droites pour supporter le poids de la debacle.
50 meter shooting equipment Schneisigen / Berezina Naefels .
Worcester: Pamela Atuquayfio, Emma Barnard, Maria Berezina, Benjamin Bradford, Douglas Caves, Erving Colon, Michael Drahos, Matthew Dufresne, Judith Early, Alexander Gyebi, Stephan Harutunian, Mark Hollis, Tyson Johnson, Stefanie Karapatsas, Laura Krom-McJunkin, Andrew Macduff, Rebecca Niddrie and Ezekiel Radik.
After partnering Berezina to win the juvenile fillies' maiden, he went on to score on Dominaite in the nursery, Stallone in the mile-and-a-quarter handicap and Majestic Bay in the two-mile handicap.
L'autre fait marquant aura ete la berezina du DC Boghni qui a perdu quatre finales.
La berezina municipale qui vire a l'humiliation n'a pas encore revele l'etendue du desastre qui va certainement se poursuivre aux regionales de septembre prochain oE la Chambre haute tombera, au regard des resultats de ce [beaucoup moins que]dimanche noir[beaucoup plus grand que], dans l'escarcellede la droite ragaillardie par l'echec de la gauche en decomposition.