The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



ruins of a fortress from the sixth to eighth century on the right bank of the Amu Darya (the territory of the Turtkul’ Raion of the Kara-Kalpak ASSR). The ruins were investigated by the Khorezm expedition in 1937–38 and 1954–55. They consist of the fortified country estate of an important feudal lord and a small city at the foot of a castle. On the territory of the city, remains have been uncovered of eighth-century buildings, in which bronze and iron objects, coins, and other artifacts were found. The castle and part of the city were constructed on the ruins of a fortification dating from ancient times.


Tolstov, S. P. Drevnii Khorezm. Moscow, 1948.
Nerazik, E. E. “Raskopki v Berkut-kalinskom oazise v 1953–1956 gg.” In the collection Materialy Khorezmskoi ekspeditsii AN SSSR, issue 1. Moscow, 1959.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.