Baghdad Railway

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Baghdad Railway,

railroad of international importance linking Europe with Asia Minor and the Middle East. The line runs from İstanbul, Turkey, to Basra, Iraq; it connected what were distant regions of the Ottoman EmpireOttoman Empire
, vast state founded in the late 13th cent. by Turkish tribes in Anatolia and ruled by the descendants of Osman I until its dissolution in 1918. Modern Turkey formed only part of the empire, but the terms "Turkey" and "Ottoman Empire" were often used
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. The railroad was initially financed chiefly by German capital; its Anatolian sections were completed in 1896. The ambitious project was then formed to extend the railroad to Baghdad, and a company, again backed chiefly by German capital, was organized for the purpose. Immediate protests were made to Turkey by France, Russia, and, particularly, Great Britain, which saw in the projected line a direct threat to its empire in India. Operations were held up for several years by these international representations and by engineering difficulties, but in 1911 work was resumed. By playing on imperialistic rivalries, the construction of the railroad was a factor in bringing about World War I. By the end of the war only a stretch between Mosul and Samarra remained to be completed on the main line, which Syria and Iraq later undertook and finished.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Germany also wanted to acquire a portion of Kuwaiti lands to expand its Berlin-Baghdad railway project, a request vehemently opposed by then Amir of Kuwait Sheikh Mubarak Al-Sabah.
Traditionally dependent on flour-milling and brickyards, the province expanded with the building of a railway workshops in 1894 for work on the Berlin-Baghdad Railway. Eskisehir was also the site of Turkey's first aviation industry (Aeronautical Supply Maintenance Center) and its air base was the command center of Turkey's first Tactical Air Force headquarters on NATO's southern flank during the Cold War.
German archaeologist Max von Oppenheim, the son of a banker, led the group of archaeologists and specialists during excavations at Tell Halaf site between 1911 and 1913 while surveying the area to build Berlin-Baghdad railway in north Syria along the Syrian borders with Turkey.