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(bûrmyo͞o`də), British dependency (2015 est. pop. 70,000), 21 sq mi (53 sq km), comprising some 150 coral rocks, islets, and islands (of which some 20 are inhabited), in the Atlantic Ocean, c.570 mi (920 km) SE of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The capital is HamiltonHamilton,
city (1990 est. pop. 3,100), capital of Bermuda, on Bermuda Island. It is a port at the head of Great Sound, a huge lagoon and deepwater harbor protected by coral reefs. The city is the focus of Bermuda's commercial and social life and is a major tourist resort.
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, on Bermuda (or Great Bermuda), the largest island. Smaller islands are Somerset, Ireland, and St. George. Bermuda's coral reefs are the northernmost in the world.

Economy, Government, and People

The colony's economic mainstays are international financial services, especially insurance and reinsurance, and tourism. Fine beaches, an excellent climate, and picturesque sites have made Bermuda a fashionable and popular year-round resort. Semitropical produce, sales of fuel to aircraft and ships, and the reexport of pharmaceuticals also contribute to the economy. Most capital equipment and food is imported, and the islands lack readily available freshwater, which must be supplied by captured rainwater, limited underground supplies, and desalinated seawater. Bermuda is divided into nine parishes and two municipalities. The British monarch, represented by a governor, is titular head of state. Bermuda is led by a premier and has a bicameral parliament with an appointed 11-member Senate and an elected 36-member House of Assembly.

About 55% of Bermuda's inhabitants are of African ancestry, descended from slaves brought to the islands during the 18th cent.; there is also a sizable population of British descent. English is spoken. The main religions are the Anglican, Roman Catholic, African Methodist Episcopal, and other Christian churches.


Reputedly the first person to set foot on the islands was the Spanish navigator Juan de Bermúdez (1503–11), but they remained uninhabited, despite visits by the Spanish and English, until Sir George SomersSomers, Sir George,
1554–1610, English naval commander. The leader of several successful privateering ventures against the Spanish, he was knighted in 1603. He was a founder (1606) of the London Company and set out with settlers for Virginia in 1609.
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 and a group of colonists on their way to Virginia were shipwrecked there in 1609. This incident was known to Shakespeare when he wrote The Tempest. Long called Somers Islands, the Bermudas were first governed by chartered companies but were acquired by the crown in 1684. The harbor of St. George was a base for privateers during the War of 1812, and the island was a center for Confederate blockade runners during the American Civil War.

During World War II the islands played an important strategic role as the site of a U.S. naval and air force base. Internal self-government was granted in 1968, and the United Bermuda party (UBP) was in power for the next 30 years. Sir John Swan was premier from 1982 to 1995, when he resigned after voters rejected independence (which he had supported); David Saul succeeded him. Saul resigned in 1997 and was succeeded by Pamela Gordon, the first woman premier.

In 1998 the Progressive Labor party (PLP) came to power, with Jennifer Smith as premier. Although Smith led her party to victory again in 2003, a PLP revolt led to her resignation and Alex Scott became premier. Scott's strong support for independence, which was not popular, led Ewart Brown to challenge him for the PLP leadership post, and in 2006 Brown replaced Scott as party leader and premier. Brown and the PLP remained in power after the 2007 elections; he resigned as premier and PLP leader in 2010 and was succeeded by Paula Cox. The 2012 elections were won by the One Bermuda Alliance (OBA). Craig Cannonier became premier, but he resigned in 2014 and was succeeded by Michael Dunkley. In 2017 the PLP won by a landslide, and David Burt became premier; Burt and PLP remained in power after the 2020 elections. Bermuda hosted the 2017 America's Cup yacht race on the Great Sound.


See R. Joseph, Bermuda (1967); H. C. Wilkinson, Bermuda from Sail to Steam (2 vol., 1973); T. Tucker, Bermuda (1975); J. C. W. Ahiakpor, The Economic Consequences of Political Independence: The Case of Bermuda (1990).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a group of coral islands (about 300) in the Atlantic Ocean, 900 km east of the North American continent. It is a colony of Great Britain. Its area is 53.3 sq km, and its population was 50,000 in 1966. The inhabitants are called Bermudians. Its administrative center is Hamilton. The islands are situated on the peak of an extinct underwater volcano. The highest point on the islands reaches 79 m. The climate is tropical and moderately humid. The average temperature during the coldest month (March) is 16.7° C; during the warmest month (August), 26.7° C. Precipitation can reach 1,350 mm a year. There are health resorts. Bermuda was discovered by the Spaniard J. de Bermúdez in 1522; it has been an English possession since 1609 (officially since 1684). It has British naval and air bases and, since 1941, US naval and military bases as well.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Official name: Bermuda Capital city: Hamilton Internet country code: .bm

Flag description: Red, with the flag of the United Kingdom in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and green shield with a red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

Geographical description: North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east of South Carolina (US)

Total area: 22.7 sq. mi. (58.8 sq. km.)

Climate: Subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

Nationality: noun: Bermudian(s); adjective: Bermudian

Population: 66,163 (July 2007 CIA est.)

Ethnic groups: Black African 54.8%, white European 34.1%, mixed 6.4%, other 4.3%, unspecified 0.4%

Languages spoken: English (official)

Religions: Anglican 23%, Roman Catholic 15%, African Methodist Episcopal 11%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%, Methodist 4%, other Protestant 7%, other 12%, unaffiliat­ed 6%, unspecified 1%, none 14%

Legal Holidays:

Bermuda DayMay 24
Boxing DayDec 26
Christmas DayDec 25
Good FridayApr 22, 2011; Apr 6, 2012; Mar 29, 2013; Apr 18, 2014; Apr 3, 2015; Mar 25, 2016; Apr 14, 2017; Mar 30, 2018; Apr 19, 2019; Apr 10, 2020; Apr 2, 2021; Apr 15, 2022; Apr 7, 2023
Heroes' DayOct 10, 2011; Oct 8, 2012; Oct 14, 2013; Oct 13, 2014; Oct 12, 2015; Oct 10, 2016; Oct 9, 2017; Oct 8, 2018; Oct 14, 2019; Oct 12, 2020; Oct 11, 2021; Oct 10, 2022; Oct 9, 2023
Labour DaySep 5, 2011; Sep 3, 2012; Sep 2, 2013; Sep 1, 2014; Sep 7, 2015; Sep 5, 2016; Sep 4, 2017; Sep 3, 2018; Sep 2, 2019; Sep 7, 2020; Sep 6, 2021; Sep 5, 2022; Sep 4, 2023
New Year's DayJan 1
Queen Elizabeth II BirthdayJun 13, 2011; Jun 11, 2012; Jun 10, 2013; Jun 9, 2014; Jun 8, 2015; Jun 13, 2016; Jun 12, 2017; Jun 11, 2018; Jun 10, 2019; Jun 8, 2020; Jun 14, 2021; Jun 13, 2022; Jun 12, 2023
Rememberance DayNov 11
Holidays, Festivals, and Celebrations of the World Dictionary, Fourth Edition. © 2010 by Omnigraphics, Inc.


a UK Overseas Territory consisting of a group of over 150 coral islands (the Bermudas) in the NW Atlantic: discovered in about 1503, colonized by the British by 1612, although not acquired by the British crown until 1684. Capital: Hamilton. Pop.: 82 000 (2003 est.). Area: 53 sq. km (20 sq. miles)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
In this historic year, the consulate general is doing everything it can to help its Bermudan friends know that America cares about Bermuda and its 400th anniversary.
England's Peter Nicol and Lee Beachill began their defence of the doubles gold they won in Manchester four years ago with an emphatic victory over Bermudan pair Nicholas Kyme and James Stout.
However, Bermudan new-ball man Kevin Hurdle took the scalps of both Ed Joyce and Michael Vaughan in the warm-up game against England, and Sehwag will have to see off Hurdle on a bouncy pitch if he is going to build an innings.
ITV's late commentator Brian Moore always referred to West Ham's Clyde Best as 'the big Bermudan.' But Best is very much second-best when it comes to big Bermudans in sport.
Bermuda captain Clay Smith's decision to bat first was not rewarded by his top order as they crashed to 25 for three and 88 for seven, but an unbeaten 53 from wicketkeeper Dean Minors and 45 from Lionel Cann helped the Bermudans post a competitive total of 219 for nine
IRELAND kept their World Cricket League hopes alive by claiming a four-wicket victory over the Bermudans in Nairobi.