Saint Bernard

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Related to Bernard, Saint: Saint Bernard of Clairvaux

Bernard, Saint:

see Bernard of Clairvaux, SaintBernard of Clairvaux, Saint
, 1090?–1153, French churchman, mystic, Doctor of the Church. Born of noble family, in 1112 he entered the Cistercian abbey of Cîteaux, taking along 4 or 5 brothers and some 25 friends.
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; Bernard of Menthon, SaintBernard of Menthon, Saint
, d. 1081?, Italian churchman, founder of the Alpine hospices of Saint Bernard. His life was spent working among the people of the Val d'Aosta. Also known as Bernard of Montjoux, he is the patron of mountaineers. Feast: May 28.
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. For the two Alpine passes, see Saint BernardSaint Bernard,
two Alpine passes, both used since antiquity. The Great Saint Bernard (alt. 8,110 ft/2,472 m), on the Italian-Swiss border, links Valais canton, Switzerland, with Valle d'Aosta, Italy.
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Saint Bernard,

two Alpine passes, both used since antiquity. The Great Saint Bernard (alt. 8,110 ft/2,472 m), on the Italian-Swiss border, links Valais canton, Switzerland, with Valle d'Aosta, Italy. Frequented by the Gauls and Romans, the pass also was crossed by Charlemagne, Emperor Henry IV, Frederick Barbarossa, and Napoleon I. The hospice, founded by St. Bernard of Menthon, is in the charge of Augustinian friars. The St. Bernard dogs bred by them were formerly used to search for lost travelers. A ruined temple of Jupiter stands at the summit. Nearby are a hotel, a church, a library, and a scientific institute. The Great St. Bernard Road Tunnel, c.4 mi (6.4 km) long, linking Switzerland and Italy, was opened in 1964. The Little Saint Bernard (alt. 7,178 ft/2,188 m) connects Savoie dept., France, with Valle d'Aosta, Italy. It also has a hospice founded by St. Bernard of Menthon.

Saint Bernard,

breed of massive working dogworking dog,
classification used by breeders and kennel clubs to designate dogs raised by humans to herd cattle and sheep, as draft animals, as message dispatchers in wartime, in police and rescue work, as guardians of persons and property, or as guides (see guide dog) for the
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 developed in Switzerland in the 18th cent. and perfected by British breeders during the 19th cent. It stands from 25 to 29 in. (64–74 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 140 to 170 lb (64–77 kg). There are two varieties of St. Bernard, the smooth-coated, with very dense, short hair, and the rough-coated, with medium-length, straight or slightly wavy hair. In color the coat may be white with red markings, red with white markings, white with brindle, or brindle with white. The muzzle is white and the face characteristically marked with black. The St. Bernard was originally bred by the monks at the Hospice of the St. Bernard Pass in the Swiss Alps for rescue and guide work. Early in its history, the St. Bernard became a legendary figure as a result of the widespread stories of its valiant missions to save the lives of snowbound travelers in the pass. This rescue work, however, has undoubtedly been overemphasized. Endowed with an uncanny sense of direction, the St. Bernard was used primarily to guide the monks over trails often obliterated by windblown snow. Today it is gaining popularity as a show competitor and family companion. See dogdog,
carnivorous, domesticated wolf (Canis lupus familiaris) of the family Canidae, to which the jackal and fox also belong. The family Canidae is sometimes referred to as the dog family, and its characteristics, e.g.
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Saint Bernard

 

a breed of watchdogs that make popular pets. First bred in the 13th—14th centuries in the Swiss Alps, Saint Bernards were derived from Asian mastiff-like dogs which were brought into Europe and crossed with local dogs. The breed was named after the St. Bernard Hospice in Switzerland, which used the dogs in searching for people who had been trapped by avalanches or lost in the mountains during snowstorms.

Saint Bernards are large, standing 80–95 cm high at the shoulder. The head is wide and massive. There are both longhaired and shorthaired Saint Bernards. The dogs are white with red markings. Saint Bernards are raised by amateur dog breeders in Europe and Asia; the breed is rare in the USSR.

Saint Bernard

a large breed of dog with a dense red-and-white coat, formerly used as a rescue dog in mountainous areas