The Chaldean priest and historian Berossus
(3rd century BC), born in Babylonia, is said to have been the inventor of this type of sundial.
Nesselrath, taking apart his thesis in three ways: First he accuses Nesselrath of ignoring recent research on Babylonia under the Persian empire, especially that based on cuneiform sources, which seem to show a prosperous Babylonia rather than one in general decline that began under the Teispids (a view which Nesselrath assumes from one sentence in Berossus
Kvanvig demonstrates the interaction of traditions from the most ancient pre-Atrahasis Babylonian manuscript traditions down to the relatively late historian, Berossus
. One of the things that is fairly clear is that the final redactors of the Genesis corpus, working in Babylon during or soon after the Exile, knew virtually all of these ancient traditions and worded them into their final Genesis narratives with a greater or lesser degree of correspondence to the original.
In his forgery of the lost books of Berossus
's ancient history of Babylonia, Annius describes Ham as sexually promiscuous and a magician.
andManetho, Introduced and Translated: Native Traditions in Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt.
(FGrH 3C1.680.F2) and the three "Chaldean" observations in the Almagest (IX.7, XI.7) dated by Macedonian months but Babylonian Seleucid era year numbers.
, a Babylonian astronomer-priest in the 4th century BC, attributed the skyscraping arboretum to Nebuchadnezzar II, Babylon's king from 604 to 562 BC.
Arnold draws on current Assyriological data to trace the geopolitical realities behind literary references to Babylonians by ancient classical historians such as Herodotus and Berossus
and by authors of the Bible.
Gilgamesh then circulated around the Near East-including into the Hittite Empire in Asia Minor-and the story was retold in Greek in the fourth century by the Babylonian historian Berossus
. The epic continued to circulate in the original as well, at least as late as the second century BCE: a copy was made in around 130 by a temple trainee named Bel-ahhe-usur.
But on the other hand Berossus
and Manetho, who seemed to help in part by opposing the Greek view and supporting the antiquity of oriental civilizations, also created serious problems.