Bertil Ohlin

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Ohlin, Bertil


Born Apr. 23, 1899, in Klippan. Swedish economist and political figure.

Ohlin was a professor at both the University of Stockholm and the University of Copenhagen from 1924 to 1929 and at the Stockholm School of Economics from 1929 to 1965. He served as the minister of commerce of Sweden in 1944 and 1945 and represented Sweden in the Council of Europe from 1949 to 1960 and in 1969 and 1970 and in the Nordic Council from 1955 to 1970. He was the chairman of the bourgeois People’s (Liberal) Party between 1944 and 1967.

A member of the Stockholm school of bourgeois political economy, Ohlin shares the basic principles of J. M. Keynes and has proposed that Keynesian theory be improved by distinguishing between economic processes of the past and the future. He advocates a particular combination of free competition, monopoly, and state regulation wherein the bourgeois government can create favorable conditions for private enterprise and monopolies that “do not abuse their position.” This conception, which includes elements of neo-Keynesianism and neoliberalism, together with antimonopolistic demagogy and an open apology for monopolies, is of a decidedly antisocialist nature. Ohlin suggested the Heckscher-Ohlin model, according to which an equilibrium of prices of the factors of production in various countries—and, thus, a general economic equilibrium—is supposedly achieved under conditions of free trade. This theory, which became very popular among bourgeois economists, was developed by P. Samuelson, J. Tinbergen, and others. It is used to justify unequivalent exchange in international capitalist trade and discrimination against the developing countries.


Fri eller dirigerad ekonomi? Stockholm, 1936.
“Metodfrågor inom den dynamiska teorien.” Ekonomisk tidskrift, 1941, vol. 43, no. 4.
Utrikeshandel och Handelspolitik, 5th ed. Stockholm, 1953.
Liberal utmaning, 2nd ed. Stockholm, 1963.
Sträng, Inflationen och skatten. Stockholm, 1970.


Zhikharevich, S. G. Stokgol’mskaia shkola burzhuaznoipoliticheskoi ekonomii. Tartu, 1964.
Seligmen, B. Osnovnye techeniia sovremennoi ekonomicheskoi mysli. Moscow, 1968. (Translated from English.)
Fomin, B. S. Ekonometricheskie teorii i modeli mezhdunarodnykh ekonomicheskikh otnoshenii, Moscow, 1970.
Wennås, O. Ohlin: Folkpartiet och socialliberalismen. Lund, 1970.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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References in periodicals archive ?
International trade theory since David Ricardo, Ellie Heckscher, Bertil Ohlin and Jagdish Bhagwati establishes that global welfare is best enhanced when countries concentrate on those goods in which they enjoy the highest comparative advantage.
In the early 20th century, two Swedish economists, Eli Heckscher and Bertil Ohlin, first presented the so-called Heckscher-Ohlin model.
The theory of comparative advantage and its contemporary extensions (by economists such as Eli Heckscher and Bertil Ohlin) suggest that poor countries will specialize in the production of labor-intensive goods precisely because their wages (and other working conditions) are low enough to compensate for their generally bad labor productivity.
Knut Wicksell, Gustav Cassel, Eli Heckscher, Bertil Ohlin, and Gunnar Myrdal on the Role of the Economist in Public Debate.
An especially important milestone was provided by the celebrated Heckscher-Ohlin theorem, due to Eli Heckscher (1919), improved on by Bertil Ohlin (1933), further developed independently by Lerner(1953) and by Samuelson (1949, 1953).
In contrast, modern international trade theory, as formulated by Paul Samuelson, Bertil Ohlin, and others, predicted that the owners of capital, the wealthy one percent, would prosper while most workers would experience declining incomes.
He first covers the foreign trade paradigms of David Ricardo, explaining trade flows in terms of labor productivity, and of Eli Heckscher and Bertil Ohlin, explaining trade by differences in factor endowments, as well as the associated topics of gains from trade and distributional conflicts.
Trade explores the 1977 Nobel Memorial Prize in economics, awarded to Bertil Ohlin, who demonstrated the factors that contribute to the mutual benefit two countries derive from from trading with each other.
8842, March 2002, in Bertil Ohlin: A Centennial Celebration, 1899-1999, K Findlay, L Jonung, and M.
This book, based on his 1995 Bertil Ohlin Memorial Lectures at the Stockholm School of Economics, is an extended meditation on the role of culture in human affairs, in particular in framing the conditions of economic growth, poverty and decline.
The person that brought the endowments theory of trade to economists outside of Heckscher's native Sweden was Bertil Ohlin with the publication of his 1933 book, Interregional and International Trade.