beta particle

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beta particle,

one of the three types of radiation resulting from natural radioactivityradioactivity,
spontaneous disintegration or decay of the nucleus of an atom by emission of particles, usually accompanied by electromagnetic radiation. The energy produced by radioactivity has important military and industrial applications.
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. Beta radiation (or beta rays) was identified and named by E. Rutherford, who found that it consists of high-speed electronselectron,
elementary particle carrying a unit charge of negative electricity. Ordinary electric current is the flow of electrons through a wire conductor (see electricity). The electron is one of the basic constituents of matter.
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. Unlike alpha and gamma particles, whose energy can be explained as the difference of the energies of the radioactive nucleus before and after emission, beta particles emerge with a variable energy. This apparent violation of the law of conservation of energy (see conservation lawsconservation laws,
in physics, basic laws that together determine which processes can or cannot occur in nature; each law maintains that the total value of the quantity governed by that law, e.g., mass or energy, remains unchanged during physical processes.
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) led to the hypothesis that a second undetected particle, the neutrinoneutrino
[Ital.,=little neutral (particle)], elementary particle with no electric charge and a very small mass emitted during the decay of certain other particles. The neutrino was first postulated in 1930 by Wolfgang Pauli in order to maintain the law of conservation of energy
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, is emitted along with the electron and shares the total available energy. In some forms of induced, or artificial, radioactivity, the electron's antiparticleantiparticle,
elementary particle corresponding to an ordinary particle such as the proton, neutron, or electron, but having the opposite electrical charge and magnetic moment.
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, the positron, is emitted from the excited nucleus; the positron in this case is also called a beta particle and denoted by β+ (the ordinary beta particle is β).

beta particle

An energetic electron or positron ejected by beta decay.

beta particle

[′bād·ə ‚pard·ə·kəl]
(nuclear physics)
An electron or positron emitted from a nucleus during beta decay.

beta particle

Physics a high-speed electron or positron emitted by a nucleus during radioactive decay or nuclear fission
References in periodicals archive ?
Beta rays come from an e-beam generator, which provides the same features as gamma radiation but with reduced penetrating power.
The water discharged contained a maximum 24 becquerels per liter of radioactive substances emitting beta rays, lower than the allowable level of 30 becquerels.
The company criticised media reports that radiation levels in the tanks were high enough to kill someone in hours if exposed, and said that they mostly gave off beta rays which could be safely deflected, not the more dangerous gamma rays.
35 billion becquerels of cesium and 750 million becquerels of other, unnamed radioactive substances, including strontium, that emit beta rays, the Japan Times reports.
By now it was understood that beta rays were streams of speeding electrons (beta particles), while gamma rays were electromagnetic radiation of still shorter wavelength and higher frequency than X rays.
The ocean contains a certain amount of radioactive potassium, which emits beta rays that produce Cherenkov light of their own.
said it detected in the leaked water radioactive substances emitting beta rays, with an extremely high reading of 80 million becquerels per liter, the utility said.