Improved methods of analysis for betaines
in Ascophyllum nodosum and its commercial seaweed extracts.
The results showed that the sucrose, proline, acetic acid, betaine
, and lysine contents of the P.
Jebbar, "Glycine betaine
, carnitine, and choline enhance salinity tolerance and prevent the accumulation of sodium to a level inhibiting growth of Tetragenococcus halophila," Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.
The main factor influencing the differences in chlorophyll content was high content of betaine
in extracts from Ascophyllum nodosum .
The common and effective compatible solutes include proline, glycine betaine
, polyols, fructans, trehalose, sucrose, and mannitol [4,12,13].
Non-ionic tensides (alkyl polyglycosides and amphoteric tensides) can be produced from, for example, starch and glucose syrup on the basis of betaines
Plants tend to adapt to drought by accumulation of cyto-compatible organic osmolytes (Rhodes and Hanson, 1993) such as polyols, proline and betaines
. Seed treatment or foliar application of chemicals like glycinebetaine, kinetin, salicylic acid (Gunes et al., 2007; Karlidag et al., 2009) may increase yield of different crops due to reduction in stress induced inhibition of plant growth (Elwana and El-Hamahmyb, 2009), enhanced photosynthetic rates, leaf area and plant dry matter production (Khan et al., 2003).
It has been shown that electron transfer fluorescence quenching does take place in quinoline betaines
and amphoteric surfactants lend mildness to formulas.
Enhancement of tolerance of abiotic stress by metabolic engineering of betaines
and other compatible solutes.
However, the greatest growth will be registered by amphoteric surfactants such as betaines
, propionates and amphoglycinates.
Problems associated with the isolation, detection, and measurement of quaternary ammonium compounds, including betaines
in biological materials, have been reviewed by Gorham (6).